respiratory care modalities Hinkle Chp 21 Definitions

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created 3 years ago by salinadanley7
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chp 21
updated 3 years ago by salinadanley7
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nursing
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1

TRACHEOTOMY

surgical opening into the trachea

2

TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE

indwelling tube inserted directly into the trachea to assist with ventilation

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THORACOTOMY

surgical opening into the chest cavity

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APRV) airway pressure release ventilation

mode of mechanical ventilation that allows unrestricted spontaneous breaths throughout the ventilatory cycle;

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assist control (A/C) ventilation

mode of mechanical ventilation in which the patients breathing pattern may trigger the ventilator to deliver a present tidal volume

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chest drainage system

the use of a chest tube and closed drainage system to re expand the lung and to remove excess air, fluid, and blood

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chest percussion

manually cupping hands over the chest wall and using vibration to mobilize secretions by mechanically dislodging viscous or adherent secretions in the lungs

8

chest physiotherapy (CPT)

therapy used to remove bronchial secretions, improve ventilation, and increase the efficiency of the respiratory muscles; types include postural drainage, chest percussion, and vibration

9

continuous mandatory ventilation (CMV)

mode of mechanical ventilation in which the ventilator completely controls the patients ventilation according the preset tidal volumes and respiratory rate;because of problems with synchrony, it is rarely used except in paralyzed or anesthetized patients

10

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

positive pressure applied throughout the respiratory cycle to a spontaneously breathing patient to promote alveolar and airway stability; may be administered with endotracheal or tracheostomy tube or by mask

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endotracheal intubation

insertion of a breathing tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea

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fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)

concentration of oxygen delivered (1.0 = 100% oxygen)

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hypoxemia

decrease in arterial oxygen tension in the blood

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hypoxia

decrease in oxygen supply to the tissues and cells

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incentive spirometry

method of deep breathing that provides visual feedback to help the patient inhale deeply and slowly and achieve maximum lung inflation

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intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)

mode of mechanical ventilation that provides a combination of mechanically assisted breaths and spontaneous breaths

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mechanical ventilator

a positive or negative pressure breathing device that supports ventilation and oxygen

18

pneumothorax

partial or complete collapse of the lung due to positive pressure in the pleural space

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positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)

positive pressure maintained by the ventilator at the end of exhalation (instead of a normal zero pressure) to increase functional residual capacity and open collapsed alveoli; improves oxygenation with lower fraction of inspired oxygen

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postural drainage

positioning the patient to allow drainage from all lobes of the lungs and airways

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pressure support ventilation (PSV)

mode of mechanical ventilation in which present positive pressure is delivered with spontaneous breaths to decrease work of breathing

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proportional assist ventilation (PAV)

mode of mechanical ventilation that provides partial ventilatory support in proportion to the patients inspiratory efforts; decreases the work of breathing

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respiratory weaning

process of gradual, systematic withdrawal or removal of ventilator, breathing tube, and oxygen

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synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)

mode of mechanical ventilation in which the ventilator allows the patient to breathe spontaneously while providing a present number of breaths to ensure adequate ventilation; ventilated breaths are synchronized with spontaneous breathing

25

vibration

a type of massage administered by quickly tapping the chest with the fingertips or alternating the fingers in a rhythmic manner, or by using a mechanical device to assist in mobilizing lung secretions