Integumentary system

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1

The epidermis is composed of

keratinized stratified squamous
epithelium

2

four principal types of cells

keratinocytes,
melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells

3

90% of epidermal cells are

keratinocytes

4

tough, fibrous protein that helps protect the skin and underlying
tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals

keratin

5

What produce lamellar granules, which release a water-repellent
sealant that decreases water entry and loss and inhibits the entry
of foreign materials.

Keratinocytes

6

About 8% of the epidermal cells are

melanocytes

7

a yellow-red or brown-black pigment that contributes to skin
color and absorbs damaging ultraviolet (UV) light

Melanin

8

Type of cell that arise from red bone marrow
and migrate to the epidermis, where they constitute
a small fraction of the epidermal cells

Langerhans cells

9

Type of cell that participates in
immune responses mounted against microbes that invade the
skin, and are easily damaged by UV light

Langerhans

10

Langerhans role in the immune
response?

help other cells of the immune system recognize
an invading microbe and destroy it.

11

least numerous of the epidermal cells?

are located in the deepest layer of the epidermis

12

Type of cell that are located in the deepest layer of the epidermis

Merkel cells

13

Merkel cells and ___________ discs detect touch
sensations

tactile

14

The deepest layer of the epidermis

stratum basale

15

stratum basale composed of a single row of?

cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes

16

Superficial to the stratum basale and arranged in 8 to 10 layers of
many-sided keratinocytes fitting closely together.

stratum spinosum

17

At about the middle of the epidermis and consists of three to
five layers of flattened keratinocytes that are undergoing
apoptosis

stratum granulosum

18

A distinctive feature of cells in this layer is the presence
of darkly staining granules of a protein called

keratohyalin

19

Also present in the keratinocytes are membraneenclosed which release a lipid-rich secretion called what?

lamellar granules

20

present
only in the thick skin of areas such as the fingertips, palms, and
soles

stratum lucidum

21

Which layer consists of three to five layers of flattened clear, dead
keratinocytes that contain large amounts of keratin and thickened
plasma membranes.

stratum lucidum

22

Which layer consists on average of 25 to 30 layers of flattened dead keratinocytes

stratum corneum

23

Constant exposure of skin to
friction stimulates the formation of a

callus, an abnormal thickening
of the stratum corneum.

24

As the cells move from one epidermal layer to the
next, they accumulate more and more keratin, a process called

keratinization

25

The second, deeper part of the skin and composed of
a strong connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers is called what?

dermis

26

The ___________ region makes up about one-fifth of the thickness of the total dermis layer

papillary

27

The dermis also has the ability to

stretch and recoil easily

28

Blood
vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles (epithelial invaginations
of the epidermis) are embedded in the

dermal layer

29

The Papillary regions surface area is greatly increased by

dermal papillae

30

Some dermal
papillae also contain tactile receptors called

Meissner corpuscles
or corpuscles of touch, nerve endings that are sensitive to
touch, and free nerve endings, dendrites that lack any apparent
structural specialization

31

Which region is attached to
the subcutaneous layer?

reticular

32

reticular region consists of?

consists of dense irregular connective
tissue containing fibroblasts, bundles of collagen, and some
coarse elastic fibers

33

The study of the pattern of
epidermal ridges is called

dermatoglyphics

34

pigments that
impart a wide variety of colors to skin

Melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene

35

Which pigment cell is most plentiful in the epidermis of the penis,
nipples of the breasts, area just around the nipples (areolae),
face, and limbs?

Melanocytes

36

the oxygen-carrying pigment in red
blood cells.

hemoglobin

37

yellow-orange
pigment that gives egg yolk and carrots their color.

Carotene

38

stored in the stratum corneum and fatty areas of the
dermis and subcutaneous layer in response to excessive dietary
intake

Carotene

39

inherited
inability of an individual to produce melanin.

Albinism

40

people affected by albinism, have melanocytes that are
unable to

synthesize tyrosinase

41

the partial
or complete loss of melanocytes from patches of skin produces
irregular white spots.

vitiligo

42

buildup of the yellow pigment bilirubin in the skin.

Jaundice

43

someone who has stopped
breathing, the mucous membranes, nail beds, and skin appear bluish

cyanotic

44

redness of the skin, is caused by engorgement of capillaries
in the dermis with blood due to skin injury, exposure to heat, infection,
inflammation, or allergic reactions.

Erythema

45

paleness of
the skin, may occur in conditions such as shock and anemia.

Pallor

46

A substance that removes hair is called

depilatory

47

What are present on most skin surfaces except
the palms, palmar surfaces of the fingers, the soles, and plantar
surfaces of the feet

Hairs

48

the superficial portion of the hair, which projects above the surface
of the skin

shaft

49

The shaft and root of the hair both
consist of three concentric layers of cells called?

medulla, cortex, and
cuticle of the hair

50

Layer of hair which
may be lacking in thinner hair, is composed of two or three
rows of irregularly shaped cells.

inner medulla

51

Layer of hair that forms the
major part of the shaft and consists of elongated cells.

middle cortex

52

the outermost layer, consists of a single layer
of thin, flat cells that are the most heavily keratinized

cuticle of the hair

53

Surrounding the root of the hair is

the hair follicle

54

downward continuation of the
epidermis is referred to as?

external root sheath

55

produced by the matrix
(described shortly) and forms a cellular tubular sheath of epithelium
between the external root sheath and the hair

internal root sheath

56

dense
dermis surrounding the hair follicle is called

dermal root
sheath

57

The base of each hair follicle and its surrounding dermal root
sheath is an onion-shaped structure is called?

bulb

58

the Bulb structure houses a nipple-shaped indentation called?

papilla of the
hair

59

the papilla of the
hair contains what?

areolar connective tissue and many blood
vessels that nourish the growing hair follicle.

60

condition which results in the partial or complete
lack of hair, may result from genetic factors, aging, endocrine
disorders, chemotherapy, or skin disease

Alopecia

61

condition of excessive
body hair

hirsutism

62

the follicles produce
very fine, nonpigmented, downy hairs called

lanugo

63

Prior to birth,
the lanugo of the eyebrows, eyelashes and scalp are shed and replaced
by long, coarse, heavily pigmented hairs called

terminal
hairs

64

The lanugo of the rest of the body are replaced by

vellus
hairs

65

vellus
hairs are commonly referred to as?

commonly called “peach fuzz,” which
are short, fine, pale hairs that are barely visible to the naked eye.

66

which glan that are also oil
glands which are simple, branched acinar glands.

Sebaceous glands

67

Sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called

sebum

68

There are three to four million sweat glands, or also called what?

sudoriferous
glands

69

sudoriferous
glands release what?

sweat, or perspiration, into hair
follicles or onto the skin surface through pores

70

Sweat glands are
divided into two main types,

eccrine and apocrine

71

which gland are also known as merocrine sweat glands, are simple,
coiled tubular glands that are much more common than apocrine
sweat glands

Eccrine sweat glands

72

which gland is distributed
throughout the skin of most regions of the body, especially in the
skin of the forehead, palms, and soles

Eccrine sweat glands

73

The sweat produced by eccrine sweat glands consists of?

water, ions (mostly Na and Cl), urea, uric
acid, ammonia, amino acids, glucose, and lactic acid

74

Which glandare also simple, coiled tubular glands and
They are found mainly in the skin of the axilla (armpit), groin,
areolae (pigmented areas around the nipples) of the breasts, and
bearded regions of the face in adult males.

Apocrine sweat glands

75

Modified sweat glands in the external ear are called

ceruminous

76

The
combined secretion of the ceruminous and sebaceous glands is a
yellowish material called

cerumen

77

what are the
three common forms of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinomas, Squamous cell
carcinomas, Malignant melanomas

78

which skin cancer account for
about 78% of all skin cancers. The tumors arise from cells in the stratum
basale of the epidermis and rarely metastasize

Basal cell carcinomas

79

which skin cancer account for about 20% of all skin cancers, arise
from squamous cells of the epidermis, and they have a variable tendency
to metastasize

Squamous cell
carcinomas

80

which skin cancer arise from melanocytes and account for
about 2% of all skin cancers

Malignant melanomas

81

Burn involves only the epidermis (Figure 5.9a). It is characterized by mild
pain and erythema (redness) but no blisters.

first-degree burn

82

burn that destroys the epidermis and part of the
dermis (Figure 5.9b). Some skin functions are lost. In a second-degree
burn, redness, blister formation, edema, and pain result.

second-degree burn

83

destroys the epidermis,
dermis, and subcutaneous layer (Figure 5.9c). Most skin functions are
lost. Such burns vary in appearance from marble-white to mahogany
colored to charred, dry wounds.

third-degree burn or full-thickness burn

84

Skin graft that transplanted skin is usually taken from the same individual

autograft

85

transplanted skin that is taken from identical twin?

isograft