Activity 2: Observing Sectioned Specimens

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1

1. What is superior?

2. What is inferior?

1. Above

2. Below

The nose is superior to the mouth, and the abdomen is inferior to the chest.

2

1. What is anterior?

2. What is posterior?

Give an example of the two.

1. Front

2. Back

Anterior structures are the most forward - the face, chest, and abdomen. Posterior structures are those toward the backside of the body - spine is posterior to the heart.

3

1. What is medial?

2. What is lateral?

Give examples of the two.

1. toward the midline

2. away from the midline

Ear is lateral to the nose. The sternum is medial to the ribs.

4

Which 4 terms of positions assume the person of interest is in standard anatomical position?

1. Cephalad (cranial)/caudal

2. Ventral/dorsal

3. Proximal/distal

4. Superficial (external)/deep (internal)

5

1. What is cephalad (cranial)?

2. What is caudal?

Differentiate these terms between bipeds and quadrupeds.

1. Toward the head

2.Toward the tail

In humans, these terms are used interchangeably with superior and inferior. In quadrupeds, they are the same as anterior and posterior.

6

1. What is ventral?

2. What is dorsal?

Differentiate these terms between bipeds and quadrupeds.

1. belly side

2. backside

In humans, the terms ventral and dorsal are used interchangeably with the terms anterior and posterior. In quadrupeds, they are the same as inferior and superior.

7

1. What is proximal?

2. What is distal?

These terms are used to locate what specific areas of the body? Give an example of the two.

1. nearer the trunk or attached end

2. farther from the trunk or point of attachment

These terms are used to primarily locate areas of the body limbs. Ex: Fingers are distal to the elbow. The point of attachment for the upper limb is the shoulder. The knee is proximal to the toes. The point of attachment for the lower limb is near the pelvic region.

8

1. What is superficial (external)?

2. What is deep (internal)?

Give an example of the two.

1. Toward or at the body surface

2. Away from the body surface

The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles. The lungs are deep to the rib cage.