Physiology Introduction I

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1

What is physiology?

The study of how living organisms "work", or function of the parts.
The study of biological functions.

2

Physiology Types

1. Organism- Human phys, plant phys, comparative phys, bacterial phys

2. Organ systems- EX: cardiovascular, Renal

3. Condition- Pathophysiology

3

What is Pathophysiology?

aka pathologic physiology

Part of the "Condition" type of physiology

It is an altered state due to disease
"Physiology gone wrong"

4

Physiology History

Ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Chinese treated endocrine related problems

1. Aristotle 4. Claude Bernard
2.Erasistratus 5. Walter Canon
3. Harvey

5

Aristotle

384 BC-322 BC

The Humors of Life:
Blood- sanguine (healthy), Yellow bile- Choleric, Black bile- Melancholic, Phlegm- Phlegmatic

6

Erasistratus

384 BC- 250

"Father" of Physiology
Attempted to apply physical laws to study human function

Traced sensory and motor nerves to brain, veins, and arteries to heart
EX: believed nerves carried a "nervous spirit" from the brain and that arteries carried "animal sprits"

7

Harvey

1578-1657

Introduced experimentation to study function

8

Claude Bernard

1813- 1878

The "Father" of MODERN Physiology

Milieu interieur- an internal "mixture" that remains constant, despite changes in the external environment
EX: If you jump in the ocean, which is salty, your internal "mixture" will not become salty

9

Walter Canon

1871-1945

Created the term "homeostasis" which means " staying the 'same'"
It is never perfectly constant

Wrote the book , "Wisdom of the Body"

10

Nobel Prize in Physiology/ Medicine

1. Sir Fredrick Grant Banting and John James Richard Macleod- 1923
Discovery of Insulin

2. Earl W. JR. Sutherland- 1971
Studied hormone action in cells
Discovered the role of cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) in cellular translation of hormonal signal (the first 2nd messenger discovered)

11

Recent Nobel Awards

1. Robert G. Edwards

2. James E. Rothman, Randy W. Sheckman, and Thomas C. Sudhof

3. John O'Keefe, May- Britt Moser, and Edvard I. Moser

4. Yoshinori Ohsumi

12

Robert G. Edwards

2010

Development of inVitro fertilization

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James E. Rothman, Randy W. Sheckman, and Thomas C. Sudhof

2013

How the body's cells decide when and where to deliver molecules

14

John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser, and Edvard I. Moser

Discoveries of cells that constitute the brain positioning system
Called "grid cells"
Nerve cells in hippocampus

15

Yoshinori Ohsumi

2016

Mechanisms of autophagy

Autophagy- eating yourself
Contributed to embryo development and cell differentiation
Cells use it to damage proteins and invading organisms
Disrupted autophagy is linked to Parkinson's, Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's, and cancer

16

Scientific Method

1. Observe Nature
2. Pose a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis. Experiment. (must be testable)
4. Collect data. Analyze statistically (must use statistics because things happen by chance
5. Hypothesis supported by data? Accept.
6. Reformulate Hypothesis. Re-test.

17

Experimental Group

Receives treatment under consideration.

18

Control Group

An experimental group with NO TREATMENT.

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Blind Study

Subjects are not certain if receiving active or inactive agent

Placebo- an Inactive agent

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Double Blind Study

Experimenters AND subjects are uncertain who receives the active agent.

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Crossover Study

Subjects act as control AND experimental subjects.

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Intracellular Fluid

Fluid IN cells

2/3 of the body's intracellular fluid is water (28 Liters)

23

Extracellular Fluid

Fluid OUTSIDE of the cells

1/3 of the body's extracellular fluid is water (14 Liters)
14 Liters is broken up into
1. 3 liters of PLASMA
2. 13 liters of INTERSTITIAL FLUID

24

How do we preserve life?

Life can be preserved by keeping the internal environment relatively stable

25

Homeostasis

Maintaining a state of dynamic constancy, or a process which maintains internal stability

Impact of Homeostasis,
Compensation for disturbances allows internal stability and organism lives

26

History of Homeostasis

Claude Bernard- Milieu interieur= beginning stages of the realization of homeostasis (stable internal environment)

Walter Canon- created the term "homeostasis"

27

Homeostasis Involves

1. Compensation

2. Parameter

3. Control Systems

28

Compensation

Homeostasis

Includes:
Reflex responses
Involves simple or complex organ systems
Correction for disturbances

29

Parameter

Homeostasis

Is when a physical or biochemical entity is adjusted
EX: Blood glucose, blood pressure

USES control systems

30

Control Systems

Homeostasis

Is integrated components regulating a parameter
interconnected

Organisms prevent significant changes in parameters via control systems

31

Control Systems Components

1. Input Signal
2. Integrating Center
3. Output Signal
4. Response

32

Input Signal

1.

Parameter and its detector
sends signal

EX: In fish tank, a signal passes from the sensor to the control box through the wire (control of temp)

33

Integrating Center (aka Controller)

2.

Needs to measure and know where the parameter is

Intermediary
Judges if the levels are adequate or not

EX: In fish tank, the control box. It is programmed to respond to temp below 29 degrees

34

Output Signal

3.

Modifies disturbances
Most systems are output signals

EX: In fish tank, the signal passes through the wire to the heater

35

Response

4.

Final stage

EX: In fish tank, the response is that the water temp increases to keep fish alive/ at homeostasis

36

Feedback

A process where the output signal returns to alter the system

Two types:
1. Negative Feedback
2. Positive Feedback

37

Negative Feedback

The system returns the parameter towards a set point- common

NEGATES the disturbance
Brings back to homeostasis
EX: Brings temp up or down

IS homeostatic

38

Positive Feedback

The system moves parameter away from a set point- rare

AMPLIFIES disturbance
makes it worse
EX: In birth/pregnancy- Oxytocin, a pituitary hormone involved in birth

Is NOT homeostatic- because it never keeps you at a balance