17 - continued - More Blood

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Chapter 17 - mel jam
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1

The life sustaining transport vehicle of the cardio vascular system

blood

2

Blood functions include:

Transport, Regulation, Protection

3

Fluid connective tissue

blood

4

Non Living Fluid Matrix

Plasma

5

Living Blood Cells suspended in plasma

formed elements

6

red blood cells - RBC's

Erythrocytes

7

White Blood Cells (WBC's)

Leukocytes

8

Layers of blood composition

Plasma on top, Erythrocytes on bottom,WBC and platelets in BUFFY COAT

9

Main function for blood -

transport

10

1. transport function on blood

delivering oxygen and nutrients to bodys cells

11

2 - transport function on blood....

transport metabolic wastes to lungs and kidneys for elimination

12

3. transport function of blood -

transport hormones from endocrine organs to target organs

13

Percentage of plasma on top layer (least dense)

~55%

14

Percentage of Erythrocytes on bottom layer

~45% of whole blood

15

Percentage of WBC's and platelete in buffy coat

<1$

16

Percent of blood volume that is RBC's

Hematocrit

17

Percent of blood volume in males/females

-47% +- 5%/42% +- 5%

18

Most dense component of blood

Erythrocytes

19

Physical Characteristics and volume of blood

Sticky, opaque fluid with metallic taste

20

Color of blood varies by ___________

amount of O2 content

21

High O2 blood color

scarlet

22

Low O2 blood color

Dark red

23

PH of blood

7.35-7.45

24

Percent of body weight of blood

8%

25

Average volume of blood

5-6 L for males/4-5 L for females

26

Functions of blood include -

distributing substances, regulating blood levels of substances, and protection

27

Additional regulation functions of blood

Maintain body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat, maintaining normal PH using buffers, alkaline reserve of bicarbonate ions, maintain adequate fluid volume in circulatory system

28

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

defense against toxins and pathogens/transport nutrients and waste/transport body heat/transport gases

29

The process of lymphopoiesis goes in all of the following organs except

the kidney

(does go to lymphnodes,red bone marrow, thymus, spleen)

30

A typical adult hematocrit is _______

45

31

Platelets are pinched off from giant multi nucleated cells in the bone marrow called

megakaryocytes

32

Which plasma protein transports fatty acids and some hormones?

albumin

33

After donating 0.5 liters of blood, one would expect

an increased reticulocyte count

34

Blood returning to the heart from systematic circuit first enters the ________

right atrium

35

What is the correct order for the flow of blood enters from the systemic circulation?

venae cavae, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta

36

Which of the following would increase heart rate?

faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential, decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers, increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node, Increased levels of epinephrine

37

Coronary veins empty into the ________?

right atruim

38

Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the ekg's

P wave

39

If the connection between the vagus nerve and the heart is cut, which of the changes will occur

none of these - cardiac output will decrease, stroke volume will decrease, heart will beat slower, nodal fibers will depolarize more slowly

40

PTH - Parathyroid Hormone

controls calcium and phosphorus levels in blood/made by parathyroid glands/if blood calcium levels is too low the parathyroid gland releases more PTH - causes bones to release more calcium

41

Calcitonin Hormone

produced in parafollicular cells (c cells) of thyroid gland. Involved in helping to regulate levels of calcium and phosphate in blood, opposing active of PTH hormone. reduces the concentration of blood calcium levels when it has risen above normal level.

42

How protection occurs in blood ___________

Plasma proteins and platelets in blood initiate clot formation

43

How does blood assist in preventing infection?

Agents of immunity are carried in blood (antibodies, complement proteins, white blood cells.

44

cell fragments

platelets - help form clot when damaged tube to blood vessel

45

Formed elements are located?

They are suspended in plasma, and include erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

46

Percent of blood volume that is RBC's

Hematocrit

47

This, whitish layer between RBC's and plama layers

buffy coat

48

How to prevent blood loss?

Plasma proteins and platelets initiate clot formation

49

If calcium goes to high, what hormone is released? and from where?

Calcitonin - from thyroid gland

50

What does calcitonin do?

inhibits osteoclast

51

Blood plasma contains _______ percent water

90

52

Most abundant solutes are ___________.

Plasma proteins

53

Plasma proteins are produced mostly in ____________

Liver

54

Plasma proteins has _______% albumin, _______% globulins, ___________% fibrinogen

60, 36,4

55

Functions of Albumin are _____________.

substance carrier, blood buffer, major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure.

56

major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure is ______________

Albumin

57

What helps clotting by producing fibers?

Fibrinogen

58

ONLY _____________ are complete cells of formed elements.

White blood cells

59

______________ have no nuclei or other organelles.

Red blood cells.

60

Cell fragments for clotting are ___________ .

platelets

61

Most formed elements survive in blood stream for ____________.

Only a few days

62

Table: 17.1 - What is the description of water and it's importance?

90% of plasma volume, dissolving and suspending medium for solutes of blood, absorb heat

63

Description and Importance of (the Solute) Electrolytes?

Most abundant Solutes by number. Cations include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, anions include chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate. they help to maintain plasma osmotic pressure and normal blood ph

64

Description and Importance of Plasma Proteins?

8% by weight of plasma, all contribute to osmotic pressure and maintain water balance in blood and tissues. All have other functions (transport, enzymatic, etc.)

65

Description and importance of Albumin?

60% of plasma proteins, produced by liver, main contributor to osmotic pressure.

66

Description and Importance of Globulins?

36% Plasma proteins

67

Description and Importance of Alpha/beta

Produced by liver, mist are transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat soluble vitamins.

68

Description and importance of Gamma?

Antibodies release by plasma cells during immune response.

69

Description and importance of Fibrinogen?

4% of plasma proteins, produced by liver, forms fibrin threads of blood clot.

70

Description and Importance of non protein nitrogenous substances?

By-products of cellular metabolism such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonium salts.

71

Description and importance of (organic) Nutrients?

Materials absorbed from digestive tract and transported for use throughout the body. Include glucose and other simple carbohydrates, amino acids (protein digestive products) fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides (fat digestion products) cholesterol and vitamins.

72

Description and Importance of respiratory Gases?

Oxygen and carbon dioxide, oxygen mostly bound to the hemoglobin inside RBC's, carbon dioxide transported dissolved as biocarbonate ion or CO2, or bound to hemoglobin in RBCs.

73

Description and importance of Hormones?

Steroid and Thyroid hormones carried by plasma proteins.

74

What protein contains 60% of plasma protein?

Albumin

75

Functions of Albumin?

Substance carrier, blood buffer, major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure.

76

Most Blood cells originate in ____________ and do not divide?

Bone Marrow

77

Bioconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles are _____________

Erythrocytes

78

Have diameter larger than some capillaries

Erythrocytes

79

Erythrocytes are filled with _________________ for gas transport.

Hemoglobin

80

________ contain plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins.

Erythrocytes

81

Spectrin provides ______________ and _____________.

Flexibility and changes shape

82

Vicsosity means ____________

thickness

83

_____________ is the major factor contributing to blood viscosity.

Erythrocytes.

84

Each of the follow is a characteristic of whole blood except:

viscosity about the wsame as water.

85

Characteristics of whole blood - color, ph, temp.

deep red color from hemoglobin, ph 0f 7.4, built in system for clotting, temperature of aprox.

38 degrees C,

86

A Plasma protein essenrial for blood coagulation is ______________

fibrinogen

87

more than 95 percent of the protein in a red blood cell is ____________________

hemoglobin

88

A typical adult hematocrit is

45

89

White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are

basophils

90

Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by

the liver

91

plasma is closest in composition to

interstitual fluid

92

the most abundant while blood cells are _________________-

neutrophils

93

each heme rund in heloglobin encloses an atom of

iron

94

hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if

an rh-negative mother carries an rh-positive fetus

95

the pus associated with infected wounds contain

tissue fluids, cellular debris, dead neutrophils