Psychology of Gender Exam 1
The school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of observable behavior as the subject matter of psychology and discounts the utility of un-observable mental events.
The view that gender differences are biologically determined.
A school of psychology arising in the United States in the late 1800s that attempted to understand how the mind functions. They held a practical, applied orientation, including an interest in mental abilities and in gender differences in those abilities.
The term used by some researchers to describe the traits and behaviors that are regarded by the culture as appropriate to men and women.
The view that many important differences exist between the sexes.
The view that few important differences exist between the sexes.
The term used by some researchers (and considered to be inclusive by others) to describe the differences between male and female research participants.
A school of psychology arising in Europe in the 1880s that attempted to understand the workings of the conscious mind by dividing the mind into component parts and analyzing the structure of the mind.
A statistical analysis that allows the evaluation of many studies simultaneously.
Feminist standpoint epistemologies
The term applies to those who want to create a woman-centered approach to researching the female experience.
Researchers who advise taking care to avoid sexist bias in research.
A blending of masculinity and femininity, in which the desirable characteristics associated with both men and women are combined within individuals.
Positive attitudes that nonetheless serve to belittle women and keep them subservient.
The beliefs about the characteristics associated with, and the activities appropriate to, men or women.
The incorrect belief that two events vary together, or the perception that the relationship is strong when little or no actual relationship exists.
Attitudes that people hold on an unconscious level, which may differ from their explicit, conscious attitudes.
A phenomenon that occurs in situations in which the presences of negative stereotypes affects the performance of those to whom the stereotype applies.
The process of demonstrating that a psychological test measures what it claims to measure; the procedure that demonstrates the accuracy of a test.
Chemical substances released from endocrine glands that circulate throughout the body and affect target organs that have receptors sensitive to the specific hormones.
Glands that secrete hormones into the circulatory system.
Hormones related to sexual dimorphism and sexual reproduction that are derived from cholesterol and consist of a structure that includes four carbon rings.
Hormones produced by the hypothalamus that act on the pituitary to release tropic hormones.
An endocrine gland within the brain that produces tropic hormones that stimulate other glands to produce yet other hormones.
Hormones produced by the pituitary gland that influence the release of other hormones by other glands, such as the gonads.
A class of hormones that includes testosterone and other steroid hormones. Men typically produce a greater proportion of this than they do of estrogen.
A class of hormones that includes estradiol and other steroid hormones. Women typically produce a greater proportion of this than they do of androgens.
The most common of the androgen hormones.
The most common of the estrogen hormones.
A group of steroid hormones that prepares the female body for pregnancy; their function for the male body is unknown.
The existence of two sexes- male and female- including differences in genetics, gonads, hormones, internal genitalia, and external genitalia.
The internal reproductive organs, consisting of the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, ad upper vagina in women; and testes, seminal vesicles, vas deferent, and prostate gland in men.
The reproductive structures that can be seen without internal examination: clitoris, labia, and vaginal opening in women and penis and scrotum in men.
One of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23. Two X chromosomes make a genetic females, whereas genetic males have only one X chromosome in pair 23.
One of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23. One X and one Y chromosome make a genetic male, whereas genetic females have two X chromosomes in pair 23.
A system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the male internal reproductive system- testes, seminal vesicles, and vas deferent.
A system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the female internal reproductive system-ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina.
The concept that the two cerebral hemispheres are not functionally equal but rather that each hemisphere has different purposes.
Sexual Dimorphic Nucleus (SDN)
A brain structure in the hypothalamus, near the optic chasm, that is larger in male rats than in female rats and larger in men than in women.
Spinal Nucleus of the Bulbocavernosus
A collection of neurons in the lower spinal cord that control muscles at the base of the penis.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
The gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of gonads during puberty and development of ova during the years of women's fertility.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
The gonadotropic hormone that prompts sexual development during puberty and also causes a maturing ovum to be released.
The disorder that occurs when an individual has only one chromosome of pair 23, one X chromosome. These individuals appear to be female (have the external genitalia of females) but do not have fully developed internal genitalia. They do not produce estrogens, do not undergo puberty, and are not fertile.
The disorder that occurs when a chromosomal male has an extra X chromosome, resulting in the XXY pattern of chromosome pair 23. These individuals have the appearance of males, including external genitalia, but they may also develop breasts and a feminized body shape. Their testes are not capable of producing sperm, so they are sterile.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
A disorder that results in masculinization, producing premature puberty in boys and masculinization of the external genitalia in girls; also called adrenogenital syndrome.
Androgen Insensiivity Syndrome
A disorder in which body cells are unable to respond to androgens, resulting in the feminization of chormosomal males.
The first menstruation.
A disorder in which individuals have characteristics of both sexes.
A set of socially significant activities associated with being male or female.
Individual identification of self as female or male.
In Freudian theory, a region of the mind functioning beyond a person's conscious awareness.
In Freudian theory, the drives or impulses that underlie action, thought, and other aspects of personality functioning, which include the life, or sexual, instinct and the death, or aggressive, instinct.
In Freudian theory, the series of stages ranging from birth to maturity through which the individual's personality develops. These stages are the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.
In Freudian theory, the situation that exists during the phallic stage in which the child feels unconscious hostility toward the same-sex parent and unconscious sexual feelings for the opposite-sex parent. Freud used the story of Oedipus as an analogy for the family dynamics that occur during the phallic stage of personality development.
In Freudian theory, the unconscious fear that the father will castrate his son as a punishment for the son's sexual longings for his mother.
Feelings of pleasure as a result of a painful or humiliating experiences.
A type of learning based on the administration of reinforcement or punishment. Receiving reinforcement links the reinforcement with the behavior that preceded it, making the behavior more likely to be repeated.
Any stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated.
Any stimulus that decreases the probability that a behavior will be repeated.
The knowledge that gender is a permanent characteristic and will not change with superficial alterations.
Individual identification of self as female or male.
Gender Identity Disorder
A disorder that occurs when a child rejects the gender role that corresponds to biological sex and adopts cross-gender behaviors and possibly a cross-gender identity.
A mixture of actual information with phony details into a realistic portrayal that is really fiction.
An individual who receives hormonal and surgical treatment to be changed to the other sex.
The Industrial Revolution produced
The Doctrine of Two Spheres and the Cult of True Womanhood.
The Doctrine of Two Spheres
The belief that women's and men's interests diverge- they have their separate areas of influence.
The Cult of True Womanhood
Held that the combination of piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity provided the promise of happiness and power to the Victorian woman, and without these no woman's life could have real meaning.
R.W. Connell contended
Industrialization, world exploration, and civil wars became activities associated with men and formed the basis for modern masculinity.
Four theses of the Male Sex Role
No sissy stuff
the Big Wheel
the Sturdy Oak
the Give 'em Hell
Lewis Terman and Catherine Cox Miles constructed
the Attitude Interest Analysis Survey
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
More interested in measuring homosexual tendencies in men.
Viewed masculine/feminine as opposite ends on a spectrum
no women were used in the study.
Alternative means of conceptualizing masculinity and femininity
"Instrumental" for men
"Expressive" for women
proposed that some people have characteristics associated with both masculinity and femininity; that is, some people are androgynous.
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)
one scale measured masculinity, another femininity
The MF tests
purport to measure masculinity and femininity, but actually measure gender stereotypes rather than personality characteristics.
Places limits and evaluations on what traits and behaviors are allowed.
The stereotype for men
seems to be more stable, and men may be the victims of more stringent stereotyping than women.
allows children to form and maintain stereotypes.
Social Role Theory
Developed by Alice Eagly
Social Role Theory
Stereotypes arise from social roles and social status of men and women, while also maintaining these social roles and statuses.
Alice Eagly described stereotypes
men-bad but bold
women-wonderful but weak
notice confirming evidence but ignore disconfirming evidence
expectation ---> behavior towards target ---> elicit expected response from target.
Cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, expectations; stereotypes can come into play)
Traditional Gender attitutudes
Generally supports the dichotomization of gender and preconceived roles of men and women
Egalitarian Gender attitudes
Would reject the cultural stereotypes and roles
Consciously aware of the beliefs/attitudes
Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS)
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
negative attitude toward women
(Glick and Fiske) you hate and love this group
Hostility towards women, particularly women trying to gain control or power
Positive attitude toward women, but still serve to maintain the social order in which men are dominant and women subordinate.
A social construction; traits and behaviors that are regarded by a culture as appropriate for men and women.
refers to biological sex
Why study gender
It influences the ABC's of psychology
How we sit, how we greet one another, sexual behaviors, etc.
How we think, how we think about our thoughts, how we think about ourselves
believe that gender differences are due to nature (the essence of the person); differences are genetically programed
Pleistocene era (men in charge of hunting, women in charge of gathering and taking care of children)
Sexual strategies theory
seeks to explain the differences in mate selection;
1. Researchers have found that women tend to rate status and resources as more important than men and men tend to rate physical attractiveness as more important than women.
2. Suggests that the differences in mate selection is due to reproductive capabilities (women have less than men)
Limitations to the Sexual Strategies Theory
Does not take into account abnormal cases; infertility
Does not take into account social constructs; women are often socialized to believe that a husband with resources is the goal
Assumes that men are always the provider
Not causal; cannot be manipulated so can't determine cause and effect
Biosocial view (Nurture side)
socialization has led to perceived gender differences between men and women.
Individuals who feel that the gender differences we see are due to societal influence and are interested and fighting for an equal society between genders
Concerned with how gender stereotypes have harmed both men and women
How do we study gender?
Bias in Research
not necessarily founded in scientific research but may spark scientific research
(some may have scientific evidence in support of them)
does not equal causation
indicates a relationship between to variables (this does not mean that one variable causes the other, this must be determined using experimentation and manipulation)---> testosterone levels and aggression
used to determine causal relationships where one variable is manipulated
Bias in research
finding a problem to investigate
analyzing and interpreting results
Finding a problem to investigate
can be influenced by gender/stereotypes/etc
May be inaccurate/ misleading/ incomplete
1. previously believed that behavioral observation was best but observers could be biased
2. Also doesn't take into account the gender of the researcher conducting the study
Analyzing and interpreting results
(biggest area where bias can seep in)
1. Statistical significance: indicates that the observed differences are not due to chance, at least 95% certain
(possible distributions for a statistically significant gender difference
views men as the "standard"; deviation from the standard is considered abnormal and detrimental
studies that find a statistical significant gender difference are more likely to be published
statistical technique that determines an effect size from hundreds to studies
the biological development of 2 distinct sexes that are capable of reproduction. It is not complete until the end of puberty
Stages of Sexual Dimorphism
23rd chromosomal pair determines biological sex
Females: XX-can only give X chromosome
Males: XY- can give either X or Y chromosome
all embryos develop with the following two systems:
internal male genitalia
3rd month of pregnancy leads to development of testes which leads to production of androgen (which is considered the male hormone) which leads to internal male genitalia (prostate gland, seminal vesicles and vas deferens)
External genitalia 6 weeks after conception- includes penis and scrotum
Also produces Mullerian inhibiting substance which degenerates the Mullerian system
development triggeered by genes but no surge of estrogens or progesterone
female internal genitalia-ovaries, uterus, and upper vagina
women are born with all their ovum
external genitalia- clitoris, outer and inner labia, vaginal opening
slightly younger age for women than for men
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone ( LH)
stimulates the gonads to produce sex hormones (androgen for men, estrogen and progesterone for women)
The hormones fluctuate in women throughout their cycle; for men they also fluctuate, just not in a cycle
Primary sex characteristics
Females: ovaries which will lead to the onset of ovulation
testes which lead to sperm production
males first ejaculation
Secondary sex characteristics
changes in body associated with maturity but not necessary for reproduction
Females: breasts, rounding of body contours
males: larynx enlargement, hairline recession
both: androgens contribute to growth of body hair and acne
casts women as inferior to men
Freud's psychosexual stages
sexual gratification from oral activities
Pleasure from excretory functions
different course of personality development for boys and girls. Sexual pleasure shifts to genitals.
Girls and boys are aware that not everyone has a penis and girls are supposedly envious of their lack of one. (penis envy)
little overt sexual activity occurs
Genital relationship with people of the opposite sex
In regard to women who could not achieve pleasure from vaginal intercourse, Freud believed
these women had not achieved the mature, genital type of sexuality that signaled adequate personality development.
Social learning theory classifies gender development as
Biological sex differences
furnish the basis for gender identity, but social learning theorists contend that a great many other characteristics and behaviors that have no relation to sex have been tied to gender
The social environment provides children with
examples of male and female models who perform different behaviors, including behaviors that vary by gender
a dissatisfaction with their biological sex
Gender identity refers to
identifying and accepting the self as male or female
Gender role behaviors are
those behaviors that are typically associated with males or females
When children can consistently apply gender labels, they often do so on
the basis of some external and irrelevant physical characteristics
consists of gender stability and gender consistency
the knowledge hat gender is a stable personal characteristic
the belief that people return their gender even when they adopt behaviors or superficial physical features associated with the other gender.
Gender schema theory predicts that
children attend to and master information about their own gender more rapidly than about the other gender.
Children with stronger gender identities showed
better adjustment and acceptance by peers, but pressure to conform to gendered behaviors prompted negative ractions
Biology, family, peers, and media extert
influences on gender identity development
The evolutionary view holds that
adaptations during human evolutionary history have shaped gender-related behaviors.
a person's perspective of having a particular gender which may or may not correspond to the sex assigned to them at birth
In order to change your gender identity you must be able to
1. ability to distinguish between the sexes (around 9 months)
2. ability to label genders (around 24 months)
3. attain gender constancy (3-6 years)
Operant conditioning is associating a behavior with its consequence
you can learn through observing others
Synthesized realism in media
the mixture of fact and fiction being portrayed as real (reality shows)
Gender role flexibility
the ability to incorporate male and female gender roles
Gender role rigidity
peaks in adolescence and tends to decline in college and later adulthood.
Fathers tend to be more traditional with their attitudes about gender
Single mother households are more gender role flexible
Mixed gender siblings have more traditional gender roles
girls tend to be more gender role flexible
their gender identity is the same as their assigned sex
gender is different from their assigned sex
Transgender individual who has gone through reassignment surgery or hormone therapy to fit into their identified sex.
identifies neither as male or female
identifies as both male and female
distress/disfunction marked by differences between individuals expressed/experienced gender and their assigned sex
Name change of gender dysphoria
dysphoria is an affective term; it left the diagnosis in so people can still receive treatment
*treatment is not to force individuals to accept their assigned sex
United States Transgender Survey (USTS)
-anonymous survey online
-growing visibility and acceptance of transgenderism
-more supportive family, co-workers, and peers from previous studies
-nearly 1/3 were living in poverty in comparison to their 14% makeup of the population which leads to participation in the underground economy,