Psychology of Gender Exam 1

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1

Behaviorism

The school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of observable behavior as the subject matter of psychology and discounts the utility of un-observable mental events.

2

Essentialist View

The view that gender differences are biologically determined.

3

Functionalist

A school of psychology arising in the United States in the late 1800s that attempted to understand how the mind functions. They held a practical, applied orientation, including an interest in mental abilities and in gender differences in those abilities.

4

Gender

The term used by some researchers to describe the traits and behaviors that are regarded by the culture as appropriate to men and women.

5

Maximalist view

The view that many important differences exist between the sexes.

6

Minimalist view

The view that few important differences exist between the sexes.

7

Sex differences

The term used by some researchers (and considered to be inclusive by others) to describe the differences between male and female research participants.

8

Structuralist

A school of psychology arising in Europe in the 1880s that attempted to understand the workings of the conscious mind by dividing the mind into component parts and analyzing the structure of the mind.

9

Meta-analysis

A statistical analysis that allows the evaluation of many studies simultaneously.

10

Feminist standpoint epistemologies

The term applies to those who want to create a woman-centered approach to researching the female experience.

11

Feminist Empiricists

Researchers who advise taking care to avoid sexist bias in research.

12

Androgyny

A blending of masculinity and femininity, in which the desirable characteristics associated with both men and women are combined within individuals.

13

Benevolent Sexism

Positive attitudes that nonetheless serve to belittle women and keep them subservient.

14

Gender Stereotype

The beliefs about the characteristics associated with, and the activities appropriate to, men or women.

15

Illusory Correlation

The incorrect belief that two events vary together, or the perception that the relationship is strong when little or no actual relationship exists.

16

Implicit attitudes

Attitudes that people hold on an unconscious level, which may differ from their explicit, conscious attitudes.

17

Stereotype Threat

A phenomenon that occurs in situations in which the presences of negative stereotypes affects the performance of those to whom the stereotype applies.

18

Validation

The process of demonstrating that a psychological test measures what it claims to measure; the procedure that demonstrates the accuracy of a test.

19

Hormones

Chemical substances released from endocrine glands that circulate throughout the body and affect target organs that have receptors sensitive to the specific hormones.

20

Endocrine glands

Glands that secrete hormones into the circulatory system.

21

Steroid Hormones

Hormones related to sexual dimorphism and sexual reproduction that are derived from cholesterol and consist of a structure that includes four carbon rings.

22

Gonads

Reproductive organs.

23

Releasing Hormones

Hormones produced by the hypothalamus that act on the pituitary to release tropic hormones.

24

Pituitary Glands

An endocrine gland within the brain that produces tropic hormones that stimulate other glands to produce yet other hormones.

25

Tropic Hormones

Hormones produced by the pituitary gland that influence the release of other hormones by other glands, such as the gonads.

26

Androgens

A class of hormones that includes testosterone and other steroid hormones. Men typically produce a greater proportion of this than they do of estrogen.

27

Estrogens

A class of hormones that includes estradiol and other steroid hormones. Women typically produce a greater proportion of this than they do of androgens.

28

Testosterone

The most common of the androgen hormones.

29

Estradiol

The most common of the estrogen hormones.

30

Progestins

A group of steroid hormones that prepares the female body for pregnancy; their function for the male body is unknown.

31

Sexual Dimorphism

The existence of two sexes- male and female- including differences in genetics, gonads, hormones, internal genitalia, and external genitalia.

32

Internal Genitalia

The internal reproductive organs, consisting of the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, ad upper vagina in women; and testes, seminal vesicles, vas deferent, and prostate gland in men.

33

External Genitalia

The reproductive structures that can be seen without internal examination: clitoris, labia, and vaginal opening in women and penis and scrotum in men.

34

X Chromosomes

One of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23. Two X chromosomes make a genetic females, whereas genetic males have only one X chromosome in pair 23.

35

Y Chromosomes

One of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23. One X and one Y chromosome make a genetic male, whereas genetic females have two X chromosomes in pair 23.

36

Wolffian System

A system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the male internal reproductive system- testes, seminal vesicles, and vas deferent.

37

Mullerian System

A system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the female internal reproductive system-ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina.

38

Lateralization

The concept that the two cerebral hemispheres are not functionally equal but rather that each hemisphere has different purposes.

39

Sexual Dimorphic Nucleus (SDN)

A brain structure in the hypothalamus, near the optic chasm, that is larger in male rats than in female rats and larger in men than in women.

40

Spinal Nucleus of the Bulbocavernosus

A collection of neurons in the lower spinal cord that control muscles at the base of the penis.

41

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

The gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of gonads during puberty and development of ova during the years of women's fertility.

42

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

The gonadotropic hormone that prompts sexual development during puberty and also causes a maturing ovum to be released.

43

Turner Syndrome

The disorder that occurs when an individual has only one chromosome of pair 23, one X chromosome. These individuals appear to be female (have the external genitalia of females) but do not have fully developed internal genitalia. They do not produce estrogens, do not undergo puberty, and are not fertile.

44

Klinefelter Syndrome

The disorder that occurs when a chromosomal male has an extra X chromosome, resulting in the XXY pattern of chromosome pair 23. These individuals have the appearance of males, including external genitalia, but they may also develop breasts and a feminized body shape. Their testes are not capable of producing sperm, so they are sterile.

45

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

A disorder that results in masculinization, producing premature puberty in boys and masculinization of the external genitalia in girls; also called adrenogenital syndrome.

46

Androgen Insensiivity Syndrome

A disorder in which body cells are unable to respond to androgens, resulting in the feminization of chormosomal males.

47

Menarche

The first menstruation.

48

Hermaphroditism

A disorder in which individuals have characteristics of both sexes.

49

Gender Role

A set of socially significant activities associated with being male or female.

50

Gender Identity

Individual identification of self as female or male.

51

Unconscious

In Freudian theory, a region of the mind functioning beyond a person's conscious awareness.

52

Instincts

In Freudian theory, the drives or impulses that underlie action, thought, and other aspects of personality functioning, which include the life, or sexual, instinct and the death, or aggressive, instinct.

53

Psychosexual Stages

In Freudian theory, the series of stages ranging from birth to maturity through which the individual's personality develops. These stages are the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.

54

Oedipus Complex

In Freudian theory, the situation that exists during the phallic stage in which the child feels unconscious hostility toward the same-sex parent and unconscious sexual feelings for the opposite-sex parent. Freud used the story of Oedipus as an analogy for the family dynamics that occur during the phallic stage of personality development.

55

Castration Complex

In Freudian theory, the unconscious fear that the father will castrate his son as a punishment for the son's sexual longings for his mother.

56

Masochism

Feelings of pleasure as a result of a painful or humiliating experiences.

57

Operant conditioning

A type of learning based on the administration of reinforcement or punishment. Receiving reinforcement links the reinforcement with the behavior that preceded it, making the behavior more likely to be repeated.

58

Reinforcement

Any stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated.

59

Punishment

Any stimulus that decreases the probability that a behavior will be repeated.

60

Gender Constancy

The knowledge that gender is a permanent characteristic and will not change with superficial alterations.

61

Gender identity

Individual identification of self as female or male.

62

Gender Identity Disorder

A disorder that occurs when a child rejects the gender role that corresponds to biological sex and adopts cross-gender behaviors and possibly a cross-gender identity.

63

Synthesized Realism

A mixture of actual information with phony details into a realistic portrayal that is really fiction.

64

Transsexual

An individual who receives hormonal and surgical treatment to be changed to the other sex.

65

The Industrial Revolution produced

The Doctrine of Two Spheres and the Cult of True Womanhood.

66

The Doctrine of Two Spheres

The belief that women's and men's interests diverge- they have their separate areas of influence.

67

The Cult of True Womanhood

Held that the combination of piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity provided the promise of happiness and power to the Victorian woman, and without these no woman's life could have real meaning.

68

R.W. Connell contended

Industrialization, world exploration, and civil wars became activities associated with men and formed the basis for modern masculinity.

69

Four theses of the Male Sex Role

No sissy stuff

the Big Wheel

the Sturdy Oak

the Give 'em Hell

70

Lewis Terman and Catherine Cox Miles constructed

the Attitude Interest Analysis Survey

71

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

More interested in measuring homosexual tendencies in men.

Viewed masculine/feminine as opposite ends on a spectrum

no women were used in the study.

72

Alternative means of conceptualizing masculinity and femininity

"Instrumental" for men

"Expressive" for women

73

Sandra Bem

proposed that some people have characteristics associated with both masculinity and femininity; that is, some people are androgynous.

74

Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)

one scale measured masculinity, another femininity

75

The MF tests

purport to measure masculinity and femininity, but actually measure gender stereotypes rather than personality characteristics.

76

Gender stereotyping

Places limits and evaluations on what traits and behaviors are allowed.

77

Prejudice

an attitude

78

Discrimination

a behavior

79

The stereotype for men

seems to be more stable, and men may be the victims of more stringent stereotyping than women.

80

Illusory Correlation

allows children to form and maintain stereotypes.

81

Social Role Theory

Developed by Alice Eagly

82

Social Role Theory

Stereotypes arise from social roles and social status of men and women, while also maintaining these social roles and statuses.

83

Alice Eagly described stereotypes

men-bad but bold

women-wonderful but weak

84

Confirmation Bias

notice confirming evidence but ignore disconfirming evidence

85

Self-fulfilling Prophecy

expectation ---> behavior towards target ---> elicit expected response from target.

86

Attitudes

Affect

Behavior

Cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, expectations; stereotypes can come into play)

87

Gender Attitudes

Traditional

Egalitarian

88

Traditional Gender attitutudes

Generally supports the dichotomization of gender and preconceived roles of men and women

89

Egalitarian Gender attitudes

Would reject the cultural stereotypes and roles

90

Explicit Attitudes

Consciously aware of the beliefs/attitudes

Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS)

91

Implicit Attitudes

Unconscious attitude

Implicit Association Test (IAT)

92

Sexism

negative attitude toward women

93

Ambivalent Sexism

(Glick and Fiske) you hate and love this group

94

Hostile Sexism

Hostility towards women, particularly women trying to gain control or power

95

Benevolent Sexism

Positive attitude toward women, but still serve to maintain the social order in which men are dominant and women subordinate.

96

Gender

A social construction; traits and behaviors that are regarded by a culture as appropriate for men and women.

Male/female; men/women

97

Sex

refers to biological sex

98

Why study gender

It influences the ABC's of psychology

Affect

Behavior

Cognition

99

Affect

emotion

100

Behavior

How we sit, how we greet one another, sexual behaviors, etc.

101

Cognition

How we think, how we think about our thoughts, how we think about ourselves

102

Essentialists (Maximalists)

believe that gender differences are due to nature (the essence of the person); differences are genetically programed

103

Evolutionary Psychologists

Pleistocene era (men in charge of hunting, women in charge of gathering and taking care of children)

104

Sexual strategies theory

seeks to explain the differences in mate selection;

1. Researchers have found that women tend to rate status and resources as more important than men and men tend to rate physical attractiveness as more important than women.

2. Suggests that the differences in mate selection is due to reproductive capabilities (women have less than men)

105

Limitations to the Sexual Strategies Theory

Does not take into account abnormal cases; infertility

Does not take into account social constructs; women are often socialized to believe that a husband with resources is the goal

Assumes that men are always the provider

Not causal; cannot be manipulated so can't determine cause and effect

106

Biosocial view (Nurture side)

socialization has led to perceived gender differences between men and women.

107

Feminists

Individuals who feel that the gender differences we see are due to societal influence and are interested and fighting for an equal society between genders

Concerned with how gender stereotypes have harmed both men and women

108

How do we study gender?

Theories

Correlation

Experiments

Bias in Research

109

Theories

not necessarily founded in scientific research but may spark scientific research

(some may have scientific evidence in support of them)

110

Correlation

does not equal causation

indicates a relationship between to variables (this does not mean that one variable causes the other, this must be determined using experimentation and manipulation)---> testosterone levels and aggression

111

Experiments

used to determine causal relationships where one variable is manipulated

112

Bias in research

finding a problem to investigate

defining variables

collecting data

analyzing and interpreting results

113

Finding a problem to investigate

can be influenced by gender/stereotypes/etc

114

Defining variables

May be inaccurate/ misleading/ incomplete

115

Collecting data

1. previously believed that behavioral observation was best but observers could be biased

2. Also doesn't take into account the gender of the researcher conducting the study

116

Analyzing and interpreting results

(biggest area where bias can seep in)

1. Statistical significance: indicates that the observed differences are not due to chance, at least 95% certain

(possible distributions for a statistically significant gender difference

117

Androcentric Bias

views men as the "standard"; deviation from the standard is considered abnormal and detrimental

118

Publication bias

studies that find a statistical significant gender difference are more likely to be published

119

Meta-analysis

statistical technique that determines an effect size from hundreds to studies

120

Sexual Dimorphism

the biological development of 2 distinct sexes that are capable of reproduction. It is not complete until the end of puberty

121

Stages of Sexual Dimorphism

Genetic stage

Prenatal Development

Puberty

122

Genetic Stage

23rd chromosomal pair determines biological sex

Females: XX-can only give X chromosome

Males: XY- can give either X or Y chromosome

123

Prenatal Development

all embryos develop with the following two systems:
Wollfian system

Mullerian system

124

Wolfian system

internal male genitalia

3rd month of pregnancy leads to development of testes which leads to production of androgen (which is considered the male hormone) which leads to internal male genitalia (prostate gland, seminal vesicles and vas deferens)

External genitalia 6 weeks after conception- includes penis and scrotum

Also produces Mullerian inhibiting substance which degenerates the Mullerian system

125

Mullerian System

development triggeered by genes but no surge of estrogens or progesterone

female internal genitalia-ovaries, uterus, and upper vagina

women are born with all their ovum

external genitalia- clitoris, outer and inner labia, vaginal opening

126

Puberty

slightly younger age for women than for men

127

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone ( LH)

stimulates the gonads to produce sex hormones (androgen for men, estrogen and progesterone for women)

The hormones fluctuate in women throughout their cycle; for men they also fluctuate, just not in a cycle

128

Primary sex characteristics

Females: ovaries which will lead to the onset of ovulation

129

Males

testes which lead to sperm production

130

Spermarch

males first ejaculation

131

Secondary sex characteristics

changes in body associated with maturity but not necessary for reproduction

Females: breasts, rounding of body contours

males: larynx enlargement, hairline recession

both: androgens contribute to growth of body hair and acne

132

Freud's Theory

casts women as inferior to men

133

Freud's psychosexual stages

oral stage

anal stage

phallic stage

latency stage

genital stage

134

Oral Stage

sexual gratification from oral activities

135

Anal Stage

Pleasure from excretory functions

136

Phallic Stage

different course of personality development for boys and girls. Sexual pleasure shifts to genitals.

Girls and boys are aware that not everyone has a penis and girls are supposedly envious of their lack of one. (penis envy)

137

Latency Stage

little overt sexual activity occurs

138

Genital Stage

Genital relationship with people of the opposite sex

139

In regard to women who could not achieve pleasure from vaginal intercourse, Freud believed

these women had not achieved the mature, genital type of sexuality that signaled adequate personality development.

140

Social learning theory classifies gender development as

learned behaviors

141

Biological sex differences

furnish the basis for gender identity, but social learning theorists contend that a great many other characteristics and behaviors that have no relation to sex have been tied to gender

142

The social environment provides children with

examples of male and female models who perform different behaviors, including behaviors that vary by gender

143

Gender dysphoria

a dissatisfaction with their biological sex

144

Gender identity refers to

identifying and accepting the self as male or female

145

Gender role behaviors are

those behaviors that are typically associated with males or females

146

When children can consistently apply gender labels, they often do so on

the basis of some external and irrelevant physical characteristics

147

Gender constancy

consists of gender stability and gender consistency

148

Gender stability

the knowledge hat gender is a stable personal characteristic

149

Gender consistency

the belief that people return their gender even when they adopt behaviors or superficial physical features associated with the other gender.

150

Gender schema theory predicts that

children attend to and master information about their own gender more rapidly than about the other gender.

151

Children with stronger gender identities showed

better adjustment and acceptance by peers, but pressure to conform to gendered behaviors prompted negative ractions

152

Biology, family, peers, and media extert

influences on gender identity development

153

The evolutionary view holds that

adaptations during human evolutionary history have shaped gender-related behaviors.

154

Gender identity

a person's perspective of having a particular gender which may or may not correspond to the sex assigned to them at birth

155

In order to change your gender identity you must be able to

1. ability to distinguish between the sexes (around 9 months)

2. ability to label genders (around 24 months)

3. attain gender constancy (3-6 years)

156

Social-Learning Theory

Operant conditioning is associating a behavior with its consequence

157

Observational learning

you can learn through observing others

158

Synthesized realism in media

the mixture of fact and fiction being portrayed as real (reality shows)

159

Gender role flexibility

the ability to incorporate male and female gender roles

160

Gender role rigidity

peaks in adolescence and tends to decline in college and later adulthood.

161

Family differences

Fathers tend to be more traditional with their attitudes about gender

Single mother households are more gender role flexible

Mixed gender siblings have more traditional gender roles

girls tend to be more gender role flexible

162

Cis-Gender

their gender identity is the same as their assigned sex

163

Trans-Gender

gender is different from their assigned sex

164

Trans-Sexual

Transgender individual who has gone through reassignment surgery or hormone therapy to fit into their identified sex.

165

Gender fluid/non-binary

identifies neither as male or female

166

Gender-hybrid

identifies as both male and female

167

Gender dysphoria

distress/disfunction marked by differences between individuals expressed/experienced gender and their assigned sex

168

Name change of gender dysphoria

dysphoria is an affective term; it left the diagnosis in so people can still receive treatment

*treatment is not to force individuals to accept their assigned sex

169

United States Transgender Survey (USTS)

-anonymous survey online

-growing visibility and acceptance of transgenderism

-more supportive family, co-workers, and peers from previous studies

-nearly 1/3 were living in poverty in comparison to their 14% makeup of the population which leads to participation in the underground economy,