CHM 2106

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Chemistry
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Organic chemistry
updated 4 years ago by dogFaceGeorge
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1

Organic chemistry bonding type

Molecular

2

Results in an increased boiling point for organic compounds

Increase in the amount of carbon

3

Another name for alkanes

Saturated hydrocarbons/ paraffins

4

Type of hydrocarbons only containing sigma bonds

Alkanes

5

General form of alkane molecular formula

CnH2n+2

6

Boiling point of propane

-42o

7

Boiling point of butane

0.5o

8

Boiling point of pentane

36o

9

Suffix for groups off the main branch

"yl"

10

Suffix for alkanes

"ane"

11

Property of alkanes

Burn well

12

Type of hydrocarbon containing at least 1 pie bond

Alkenes

13

Concerning saturation, Alkenes and alkynes are

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

14

Suffix for alkenes

"ene"

15

In a trans isomer, before and after a double bond

Carbons go off in opposite directions

16

A cis isomer has the carbon atoms bonded to each double bonded carbon

Coming off in the same direction

17

Alkene energy density vs alkanes

Higher

18

Alkane energy density vs alkenes

Lower

19

React easily with alkenes

Oxidizers

20

Property of unsaturated fats

Easily oxidized

21

Reacting alkenes with Br2

Bromination

22

Reacting alkenes with H2

Hydrogenation

23

For pie bonds, "di, tri, tetra..." go where

Before the "ene"

24

Prefix for cyclic (aromatic) hydrocarbons

Cyclo

25

General formula for cyclic hydrocarbons

CnH2n

26

Gaseous alkanes at SATP

Have 4> Carbon

27

Liquid alkanes at SATP

Have 5-17 Carbon

28

Solid, waxy white alkanes at SATP

Have 18< Carbon

29

General formula for alkenes

No general formula

30

Stabilizing feature of e- in π bonds of cyclic "aromatics"

Delocalization

31

Feature of benzene (unsaturated cyclic)

Hard to hydrogenated/halogenate

32

Another name for toluene

Methylbenzene

33

Nitro group

-NO2

34

Ortho prefix, in terms of cyclo groups

Adjacent groups

35

Meta prefix, in terms of cyclo groups

2 groups with a carbon between them

36

Para prefix, in terms of cyclo groups

2 groups on opposite sides of cyclo group

37

Another name for dimethylbenzene

Xylene

38

BTX Aromatics

Benzene, toluene, xylene

39

Amino group formula

-NH2

40

Another name for aminobenzene

Aniline

41

Result from reacting nitro (NO2 ) group with H2

Amino group

42

Hydrocarbon with triple bonds

Alkyne

43

Simplest alkyne

Ethyne (acetylene)

44

Defining feature of alcohol

-OH (hydroxyl) group

45

Formula for 2-hexen-4-yne

CH3CHCHCCCH3

46

Formula for ethanol

CH3CH2 OH

47

Formula for isopropanol

CH3 CH(OH)CH3

48

"ol" suffix

Alcohols

49

Formula for 1,2,3-propanetriol

C(OH)C(OH)C(OH)

50

Another name for 1,2,3-propanetriol

Glycerol

51

Feature of isopropanol that makes it mix well with water

Polarity

52

Number of C connections to the C-OH of primary alcohol

1

53

Number of C connections to the C-OH of secondary alcohol (2o)

2

54

Number of C connections to the C-OH of tertiary (tert, 3o) alcohol

3

55

Condensation (2 alcohol) reaction of alcohol forms

Ethers

56

An ether bridge

-O-

57

Description of an ether

2 alkyl groups attached by an ether bridge

58

Alkyl group gains this suffix in an ether

'Oxy'

59

Oxidation reaction of a primary alcohol forms

Aldehyde

60

An aldehydes bonds with O and H

Double and single, respectively

61

Carbonyl group

C=O

62

Defining feature of aldehydes

Terminal carbonyl groups

63

Oxidation of a 2o alcohol forms

Ketone

64

Suffix for ketones

'one'

65

Another name for acetone

Propanone

66

Chemical formula for formaldehyde

H-CHO (methanal)

67

An aldehydes terminal formula, opposite from alcohol

CHO

68

A 40% v/v solution of formaldehyde

Formalin

69

Formed from the oxidation of an aldehyde

Carboxylic acid

70

Defining feature of a carboxylic acid

Carboxyl group (R-COOH)

71

Suffix of a carboxylic acid

"oic acid"

72

Formed from the oxidation of methanal (C-CHO)

Methanoic acid

73

Another name for ethanoic acid

Acetic acid

74

Another name for the smelly butanoic acid

Butyric acid

75

Definition of a structural isomer

Same molecular formula, different structures

76

1,1-diethylcyclobutane (C8H16) and 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane (C8H16) are examples of

Structural isomers

77

Definition of a stereoisomer

Same bonds, different spatial arrangement

78

Another name for optical isomers

Chiral enantiomers

79

Definition of chirality

All 4 bonds of carbon atom are different

80

Description of polymers

Chain-like combination of monomers

81

Condensation of polymers with amino (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups

Forms polyamides (polypeptides)

82

-CO-NH- (carbonyl group attached to NH)

Structure of peptide bond

83

Minimum requirement for natural protein

50 peptide bonds

84

Formed from an alcohol + a carboxylic acid

Ester

85

Structure of an ester

A carbonyl group connected to an ether bridge

86

Parts of a phenol

A benzene ring with an alcohol group

87

2 methods of polymerization

Addition and condensation

88

Another name for the condensation polymer Teflon

tetrafluoroethylene

89

Addition polymerization of propylene

Polypropylene

90

Name of -CN

Cyano group

91

2 types of polymers

Homo or copolymers

92

When in water, ions of _________ dissociate

Ionic compounds

93

When in water, _________ form ions through a reaction with water

Acids

94

When in water, _________ dissolve without structural changes

Non-electrolytes

95

Result of high ion-ion attraction in a compound

Low solubility

96

Solubility considered insoluble

<0.01 mol/L

97

Solubility as temperature increases

Solubility increases

98

Volume in % (m/V)

100 mL

99

Definition of molarity M (mol/L)

Moles solute per liter total solution

100

Definition of molality m (mol/kg)

Moles solute per kg solvent

101

Dilution equation

C1V1 = C2V2

102

William Henry stated

Solubility of a gas in liquid is proportional to the gases pressure

103

Equation for Henrys law

Sg = Kh x Pg (mol/L = mol/Latm x atm)

104

Francois-Marie Raoult stated

The vapour pressure of a solution is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure solvent multiplied by the mole fraction (reduction of equilibrium)

105

Raoults law equation

Psolution = χ solvent x Po solvent

106

Mol fraction (χ)

Mol solvent
Total moles

107

Partial pressure of a pure solvent

> partial pressure of the solution

108

χ decreases in relation to

Increase in solute

109

Ideal solution assumptions

Solute/solvent = solvent/solvent interactions

Solutes dont change their nature

solution is dilute

110

Dependency of colligative properties

Ratio of particles solute to solvent

111

Equation for BP/FP

ΔTfp = i x Kfp x m

112

Effect of solute on solvent

Lowers freezing, raises boiling

113

Entropy of a solid

Low entropy

114

Entropy of a gas

High entropy

115

BP and FP are

Relative to molality

116

Units of Kfp

oC/m or oC*kg/mol

117

Another name for menthol

s-isopropyl-2-methyl-cyclohexanol

118

Van't Hoff Factor

i = # of ions in ionic compound

119

Definition of osmotic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure of a column of solution

120

Description of osmosis

Movement through a semi-permeable membrane

121

Cause of osmotic pressure

Dilute solution separated from concentrated solution

122

Arrhenius acids in solution

Donate H+

123

Arrhenius bases in solution

Donate OH-

124

Bronsted-Lowry acids in solution

Proton donors

125

Bronsted-Lowry bases in solution

Proton receivers

126

Conjugate bases form out of

Bronsted-Lowry acids

127

Conjugate acids form out of

Bronsted-Lowry bases

128

A metal hydroxide base

Produces water when neutralized

129

pH is equal to

-logM

130

[H+] is equal to

10-pH

131

A pH meter measures

[H+]

132

pH of milk

acidic, pH 6.5 (amino acids)

133

An example of auto-ionization

H2O + H2O = H3O+ + OH-

134

Acid ionization constant

Ka=([H3O+]x[A-])/[HA]

135

Ionization rate of strong acid

>99%

136

Strong acids

HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4

137

Strong bases

Alkali metal hydroxides, alkaline earth hydroxides (not Be/Mg)

138

A property of weak acids/bases in water

Partially ionize and influence pH

139

A property of strong acids/bases in water

Completely ionize and don't influence pH

140

When a Ka||b is smaller

The respective acid||base is weaker and more stable

141

Lewis acids

e- deficient, accept e- pairs

142

Lewis bases

e- rich, donate e- pairs

143

A coordinative bond

A lewis acid and base

144

True of conjugate bases of strong acids

Will not behave as bases in solution

145

Definition of amphoteric

Behaves as both acid and base

146

Definition of amphiprotic

Both donates and accepts protons