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ch. 1-5 Marieb Anatomy and Physiology
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1

Study of the structure of body parts

Anatomy

2

Study of the function of the body to sustain life

Physiology

3

Study of large, visual body structures
(can be approached regionally, systemically or on the surface)

Macroscopic Anatomy

4

Study of extremely small structures
(subdivisions are cytology and histology)

Microscopic Anatomy

5

Study of structural changes throughout the life span

Developmental Anatomy

6

Study of structural changes before birth

Embryology

7

Renal physiology is a study involving the

kidney function and urine production

8

Neurophysiology is the study involoving the

working of the nervous system

9

Cardiovascular physiology is a study involving the

operation of the heart and blood vessels

10

Pulmonary physiology is a study involving the

lung function intergrated with the heart function and circulatory system for exchange of CO2 and O2.

11

LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION (SIMPLE TO COMPLEX
-atoms combine to form molecule
-cells made up of molecule
-similar/dissimarl types of cell all working together to perform a specific function
-different organs work together closely
-human organisms are made up of many organ systems

LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION (SIMPLE TO COMPLEX
-Chemical
-Cellular
-Tissue
-Organ system
-Organismal

12

STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION:
system for comparing the similarties between all living things LIST 3

1. All made of the same physical building blocks (atoms)
2. All use DNA for cellular instructions and hereditary transference
3. All made of cells

13

NECESSARY LIFE FUNCTION
LIST 12

1. Maintaining boundaries 7. reproduction
2. movement 8. growth
3. responsiveness 9. oxygen
4. digestion 10. water
5. metabolism 11. normal body temperatures
6. extretion 12. ap. atmos. pressure

14

*Ability of the body to maintain relative stable internal conditions despite external changes
*dynamic state/balance
*internal conditions vary within narrow limits
*not random but controlled reactions

HOMEOSTASIS

15

3 COMPONENTS:
-RECEPTOR
-CONTROL CENTER
-EFFECTOR

HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL
(sensor that monitors environment sending signal from stimuli to)
(nervous system to)
(body part/system that responds to stimuli)

16

1.approaches

2.exits

AFFERENT PATHWAY
EFFERENT PATHWAY

17

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP

reduces or shuts off stimulus i.e. temperature drops

18

POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP

more is better i.e. birthing

19

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
(skin and associated structures)

-protection
- thermo-regulation
-water balance
-sensory reception
-substance production
- outgoing messaging

20

SKELETAL SYSTEM
(all bones of the body, carilages, joints)

-protection
-movement
-support

21

MUSCULAR SYSTEM
(skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle)

-support
-protection
-movement
-posture
-thermo-genetic

22

*CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
(blood, heart, and vessels)

-transport
-BP & Blood output maintanence
-thermo-regulation
-pH regulation

23

*RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
(lungs and associated air passageways)

-ventilation
-respiration
-pH regulation assistance
-speaking component

24

*LYMPH/IMMUNE SYSTEM
(lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen)

-attacks invaders
-stops renegade cells

25

*DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
(GI tract, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas)

-ingestion
-digestion
-exportation
-elimination

26

*URINARY SYSTEM
(kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra)

-exports byproducts
-maintains chemical equilibrium in blood
-regulates water release and retention
-small endocrine function

27

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
(gonads and organs of transport and storage)

-makes gametes
-storage
-gestation
-nourishment for newborns

28

NERVOUS SYSTEM****
(CNS, PNS, sensory organs)

-sensory reception (afferent)
-integration
-motor output (efferent)
-control of all bodily functions

29

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM***
(all glands, tissues & cells that produce hormones)

-hormone production for regulation of mood, tissue function, metabolism, growth, development, sexual function, reproductive function
-works closely with NERVOUS SYSTEM

30

IMPORTANT INORGANIC MOLECULES
1.worlds best solvent
2. diatomic molecule that is a proton donor
3. waste product in process of energy (ATP)
4. minerals or salts (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Mg)

IMPORTANT INORGANIC MOLECULES
1. WATER
2. OXYGEN
3. CARBON DIOXIDE
4. ELECTROLYTES

31

CHEMICAL BONDS
1.shared electrons
2.transfer of electrons
3.proton sharing

CHEMICAL BONDS
1. covalent bond
2. ionic bond
3. hydrogen bond

32

IMPORTANT ORGANIC MOLECULES
-simple sugar, monosaccharide (glucose, fructose)
-polysaccharide (glycogen, starch)
-energy resevoir

CARBOHYDRATES

33

IMPORTANT ORGANIC MOLECULES
-fatty acids
-lipids
-oils
-waxes
-cellular membranes, yolk

FATS

34

IMPORTANT ORGANIC MOLECULES
-amino acids (peptides)
-proteins (polypeptides)
-enzymes, structure, egg white, meat

PROTEINS

35

IMPORTANT ORGANIC MOLECULES
-nucleotides DNA, RNA
-hereditary, cell information

NUCLEIC ACIDS

36

-semi permeable
-provides protection
-defines the extent of the cell

CELL MEMBRANE

37

-reservoir for raw materials and organelles

CYTOPLASM

38

-cell information and hereditary data

NUCLEUS

39

-threadlike or lozenge shaped membranous organelles
-power plant of the cell, converts glucose into ATP

MITOCHONDRIA

40

-consists of stacked & flattened membranous sacs, shaped like hollow dinner plates
-packages things for export out of the cell

GOLGI APPARATUS

41

-external surface is studded with ribosomes
-synthesizes proteins, usually for export

ROUGH ER

42

-clusters of ribosomes (small, dark-staining granules)
-perform protein synthesis for internal use

ROUSETTES

43

-continuous with rough ER & consists of tubules arranged in a looping network
-sythesizes lipids and steroids

SMOOTH ER

44

FUNCTIONS
-PROTECTION -SECRETION
-ABSORPTION -SURFACE TRANSPORT
-FILTRATION -SENSORY RECEPTIONS
-EXCRETION

EPITHELIUM OR EPITHELIAL TISSUE

45

FUNCTION
-PROTECTION (absorbing shock)
-SUPPORT FOR OTHER TISSUES (bone/cartilage)
-BRINGS DIVERSE TISSUE TYPES TOGETHER (i.e. organs)
-separates tissues which function differently

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

46

FUNCTION
-VOLUNTARY (SKELETAL)
-INVOLUNTARY (CARDIAC, SMOOTH)
-assists with movement of body systems

MUSCLE TISSUE

47

FUNCTION
-COMMUNICATION (NEURONS)
-SUPPORT, PROVIDE, PROTECT, CLEAN UP (NEUROGLIA)

NERVOUS TISSUE

48

FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
1. from injury, foreign substances, invasion, sunlight, dehydration

PROTECTION

49

FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
2. HEAT - sudoriferous glands (sweat), vasodilation (blood vessel)
COLD - vasoconstriction, pilo-erection, adipose connective tissue

REGULATION OF TEMPERATURE

50

FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
3. vast array of sensory receptors to detect environmental conditions; texture and color of skin; convey information to doctors

COMMUNICATION OF INTERNAL/EXTERNAL CONDITIONS
(cyanosis, jaundice, pallor, flushed, bronze)

51

FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
4. massive growth of keratin, oily secretions by sebaceous glands, sweat produced by sudoriferous glands

SYNTHESIS & SECRETION

52

SUB-LAYER OF EPIDERMIS 5
-single layer of rapidly dividing cells called KERATINOCYTES.
-as new cells form, they push upward
-rate of production = rate of abrasion

STRATUM BASALE

53

SUB-LAYER OF EPIDERMIS 4
-8-10 layers of cells (thickest layer)
-production of KERATIN begins here
-LANGERHANS CELLS found her (macrophages)

STRATUM SPINOSUM

54

SUB-LAYER OF EPIDERMIS 3
-3-5 layers of cell
-final fomr of KERATIN occur
-LAMELLATED GRANULES observed here, releases GLYCOLIPID for waterproofing skin

STRATUM GRANULOSUM

55

SUB-LAYER OF EPIDERMIS 2
-found only in palms/soles of feet, called thick skin
-cells appear clear, flat, are are now dead

STRATUM LUCIDEM

56

SUB-LAYER OF EPIDERMIS 1
-25-30 layer of flat, dead cells
-cells are completely filled with KERATIN
-cells continuously shed & replace

STRAUTUM CORNEUM

57

squamous

flat

58

keratinocytes

produces keratin

59

melanocytes

mature melanin forming cell

60

RETICULAR LAYER
fibroblasts

mitosis

61

RETICULAR LAYER
macrophages

wbc (langerhan's)

62

RETICULAR LAYER
mast cells

histamine (inflammatory/allergic)

63

EPIDERMIS

THIN OR THICK
4 OR 5 LAYERS
STRATA (corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale)
CELL TYPES: squamous, keratinocytes, melanocytes

64

DERMIS
PAPILLARY LAYER

AREOLAR CT
PAPILLAE
RIDGES
FINGERPRINTS & FLEXURES

65

DERMIS
RETICULAR LAYER

DENSE IRREG CT
CELLS
FIBERS
ADDITIONAL STRUCTURES
ACCESSORY STRUCTURES - NAILS
CELL TYPES: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells

66

ESSAY
1.lymphatic & immune
2. urinary
3.respiratory
4.digestive
5.cardiovascular

1.collection of ex. fluid/transport of fat from digestive system to cardiovascular system
2.produce, collects, eliminates urine/excretion of waste products
3.keeps the blood completely supplied with O2/removes CO2
4.eliminates solids & wastes/breaks down & absorbs food
5.distributes O2 and nutrients to cells/carries away CO2 and wastes

67

ESSAY
Nervous System: nerve/brain

fast acting control system of the body that responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. integration of other organ systems via nerve impulses that travel via nerves.

68

ESSAY
Endocrine System: pituitary gland/ adrenal gland

glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrition use by body cells. integration of other organ systems via hormones that travel via blood.