research methods chapter 13
the descriptive research strategy
involves measuring a variable or set of variables as they exist naturally.
observational research design
the research observes and systematically records the behavior of individuals to describe the behavior.
involves the direct observation and systematic recording of behaviors, usually as the behaviors occur in a natural situation
requires repeated exposure until the observer's presence is no longer a novel stimulus
before observations begin, we identify the categories of behavior we want to observe and then list exactly which behaviors count as examples of each category
two or more individuals must observe and record simultaneously for some of the observation periods
- frequency method
- duration method
- interval method
involves counting the instances of each specific behavior that occur during a fixed time observation period
involves recording how much time an individual spends engaged in a specific behavior during a fixed time observation period
involves dividing the observation period into a series of intervals and then recording whether a specific behavior occurs during each interval... provides a way to balance frequency and duration to obtain a more representative measurement
- time sampling
- event sampling
- individual sampling
involves observing for one interval, then pausing during the next interval to record all the observations.
involves identifying one specific event or behavior to be observed and recorded during the first interval then shifting attention to a different event or behavior during the second interval
involves identifying one participant to be observed during the first interval, then shifting attention to a different individual for the second interval
when researchers measure behaviors or events in books, movies, or other media
recording behaviors from historical records
- Naturalistic observation
- participant observation
- contrived observation
Types of observation
a researcher observes behavior in a natural setting as unobtrusively as possible
the researcher engages in the same activities as the people being observed in order to observe and record their behavior
is the observation of behavior in settings arranged specifically to facilitate the occurrence of specific behaviors
Survey research design
research study that uses a survey to obtain a description of a particular group of individuals
- Open-ended questions
- restricted questions
- Rating-scale questions
Types of Questions
produce a limited and predetermined set of responses, they are easy to analyze and summarize
allows an individual the greatest flexibility in choosing how to answer. likely to reveal each individual's true thoughts or opinions
presented as a horizontal line into categories so that participants can simply circle a number or mark an X at the location corresponding to their response
- Internet Surveys
- Mail Surveys
- Telephone Surveys
- In-Person Surveys and Interviews
Ways to administer a survey
provide an economical and efficient medium of reaching a large number of potential respondents. Researcher has greater access to participants with a particular characteristic
mail the survey to a large sample of individuals. people can answer at their own convenience anonymously.
when the individuals who return surveys are usually not representative of the entire group who receives them.
Contacting individuals by phone.
there is a risk that the researcher will influence their natural responses.
Most efficient way method for administering a survey is to assemble a group of participants and have all of them complete the survey at the same time.
Case Study Design
involves the in-depth study and detailed description of a single individual (or a very small group). provides researchers with information concerning rare or unusual phenomena OR use the detailed descriptor of a single individual to demonstrate an exception.