research methods chapter 13

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1

the descriptive research strategy

involves measuring a variable or set of variables as they exist naturally.

2

observational research design

the research observes and systematically records the behavior of individuals to describe the behavior.

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behavioral observation

involves the direct observation and systematic recording of behaviors, usually as the behaviors occur in a natural situation

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habituation

requires repeated exposure until the observer's presence is no longer a novel stimulus

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behavior categories

before observations begin, we identify the categories of behavior we want to observe and then list exactly which behaviors count as examples of each category

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inter-rater reliability

two or more individuals must observe and record simultaneously for some of the observation periods

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  • frequency method
  • duration method
  • interval method

Quantifying Observations:

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frequency method

involves counting the instances of each specific behavior that occur during a fixed time observation period

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duration method

involves recording how much time an individual spends engaged in a specific behavior during a fixed time observation period

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interval method

involves dividing the observation period into a series of intervals and then recording whether a specific behavior occurs during each interval... provides a way to balance frequency and duration to obtain a more representative measurement

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  • time sampling
  • event sampling
  • individual sampling

Sampling observations

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time sampling

involves observing for one interval, then pausing during the next interval to record all the observations.

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event sampling

involves identifying one specific event or behavior to be observed and recorded during the first interval then shifting attention to a different event or behavior during the second interval

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individual sampling

involves identifying one participant to be observed during the first interval, then shifting attention to a different individual for the second interval

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content analysis

when researchers measure behaviors or events in books, movies, or other media

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archival research

recording behaviors from historical records

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  • Naturalistic observation
  • participant observation
  • contrived observation

Types of observation

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Naturalistic Observation

a researcher observes behavior in a natural setting as unobtrusively as possible

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Participant observation

the researcher engages in the same activities as the people being observed in order to observe and record their behavior

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Contrived Observation

is the observation of behavior in settings arranged specifically to facilitate the occurrence of specific behaviors

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Survey research design

research study that uses a survey to obtain a description of a particular group of individuals

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  • Open-ended questions
  • restricted questions
  • Rating-scale questions

Types of Questions

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Restricted questions

produce a limited and predetermined set of responses, they are easy to analyze and summarize

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Open-ended questions

allows an individual the greatest flexibility in choosing how to answer. likely to reveal each individual's true thoughts or opinions

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Rating-scale questions

presented as a horizontal line into categories so that participants can simply circle a number or mark an X at the location corresponding to their response

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  • Internet Surveys
  • Mail Surveys
  • Telephone Surveys
  • In-Person Surveys and Interviews

Ways to administer a survey

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Internet Survey

provide an economical and efficient medium of reaching a large number of potential respondents. Researcher has greater access to participants with a particular characteristic

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Mail Surveys

mail the survey to a large sample of individuals. people can answer at their own convenience anonymously.

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nonresponse bias

when the individuals who return surveys are usually not representative of the entire group who receives them.

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Telephone surveys

Contacting individuals by phone.

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interviewer bias

there is a risk that the researcher will influence their natural responses.

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In-Person surveys

Most efficient way method for administering a survey is to assemble a group of participants and have all of them complete the survey at the same time.

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Case Study Design

involves the in-depth study and detailed description of a single individual (or a very small group). provides researchers with information concerning rare or unusual phenomena OR use the detailed descriptor of a single individual to demonstrate an exception.