APUSH Chapter 1 Flashcards


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1

The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America

a.

intended to found a new nation.

b.

continued to view themselves as Europeans.

c.

did not consider America as the western rim of the European world.

d.

no longer saw themselves as subjects of European kings.

e.

saw little difference between their lives in America and their lives in Europe.

B

2

The colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the following characteristics except

a.

the desire to create an agricultural society.

b.

a shared goal of living unfettered by the tyrannies of royal authority, official religion, and social hierarchies.

c.

a growing reverence for ideals such as liberty.

d.

an unwillingness to subjugate others.

e.

a majority were English speaking with English customs.

D

3

All of the following were characteristics of the original thirteen colonies except

a.

Puritans carved tight, pious, and relatively democratic communities in New England.

b.

the belief they were a single people with a common destiny, who ought to break from Britain.

c.

the southern colonies consisted of large landholders, mostly Anglican, on plantations using slave labor.

d.

there were internal conflicts over economic interests, ethnic rivalries, and religious practices.

e.

the middle colonies were the most diverse with estates interspersed with modest homesteads.

B

4

The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the following except

a.

individual liberty.

b.

self-government.

c.

opposition to slavery.

d.

religious tolerance.

e.

economic opportunity.

C

5

Identify the statement that is false.

a.

Each of the thirteen colonies enjoyed a good deal of self-rule before the 1760s.

b.

Many colonies profited from trade within the British Empire.

c.

The French and Indian War strengthened ties between the thirteen colonies and Britain.

d.

After the French and Indian War, the colonists needed greater protection from Britain.

e.

As late as 1775, most people in the colonies still clung to some hope of reconciliation with Britain.

D

6

By the 1770s, which of the following issues helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority?

a.

Taxation, self-rule, and trade restrictions

b.

Slavery

c.

Few colonists clung to any hope of accommodation with Great Britain

d.

The coronation of a new king

e.

The rise to power of radical patriots in the American colonies

A

7

The existence of a single original continent has been proved by the presence of

a.

similar mountain ranges on the various continents.

b.

nearly identical species of fish in long-separated freshwater lakes throughout the world.

c.

marsupials on the various continents.

d.

the continued shifting of the earth's crust.

e.

geological evidence of soil samples common among all continents.

B

8

Which of the following mountain ranges was probably created before the continental separation, approximately 350 million years ago?

a.

The Rockies

b.

The Sierra Nevada

c.

The Cascades

d.

The Coast Range

e.

The Appalachians

E

9

Which of the following was not a feature created in North America ten thousand years ago when the glaciers retreated?

a.

The Great Lakes

b.

The Great Salt Lake

c.

A mineral-rich desert

d.

Thousands of shallow depressions which formed lakes

e.

The Grand Canyon

E

10

The Great Ice Age accounted for the origins of North America's human history because

a.

it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America.

b.

the glacial withdrawal allowed migration from South America.

c.

the glacial withdrawal formed freshwater lakes that supported life.

d.

when it ended, European migration to the west became possible.

e.

it prevented the migration of dangerous animals from the Bering isthmus.

A

11

Most likely the first Americans were

a.

Norse seafarers from Scandinavia.

b.

Spanish explorers of the fifteenth century.

c.

people who crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America.

d.

Portuguese sailors of Prince Henry the Navigator.

e.

refugees from Africa.

C

12

In 1492, when Europeans arrived in the Americas, the total of the two continents' populations was perhaps

a.

5 million.

b.

15 million.

c.

35 million.

d.

54 million.

e.

82 million.

D

13

Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following except

a.

engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery.

b.

establish large, elaborate, and bustling cities.

c.

make strikingly accurate astronomical observations.

d.

study mathematics.

e.

carry on commerce.

A

14

The size and sophistication of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed to

a.

Spanish influences.

b.

their way of life based on hunting and gathering.

c.

the development of agriculture.

d.

influences brought by early settlers from Siberia.

e.

their use of draft animals and the wheel.

C

15

All of the following are true of the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations except they

a.

had advanced agricultural practices based primarily on the cultivation of maize.

b.

lacked the technology of the wheel.

c.

had the use of large draft animals such as the horse and oxen.

d.

built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce.

e.

had talented mathematicians, which allowed them to make accurate astronomical observations.

C

16

The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was

a.

wheat.

b.

potatoes.

c.

tobacco.

d.

corn.

e.

beans.

D

17

Native American (Indian) civilization was least highly developed in

a.

North America.

b.

Mexico.

c.

Central America.

d.

Peru.

e.

Latin America.

A

18

One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was the

a.

pacifistic nature of the native North Americans.

b.

settled agricultural societies of North America.

c.

absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America.

d.

use of native guides for spying and surveillance activities.

e.

lack of technological weaponry available to other native American cultures.

C

19

The development of "three sister" farming on the southeast Atlantic seaboard

a.

led to the dominance of the potato.

b.

enabled the Anasazis to prosper.

c.

ultimately failed to produce adequate amounts of food.

d.

was attributed to three young women of the Cherokee peoples.

e.

produced a rich diet that led to high population densities.

E

20

Before the arrival of Europeans, most native peoples in North America

a.

lived in large communities.

b.

were more advanced than those in South America.

c.

lived in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements.

d.

populated the greater part of the continent.

e.

relied on horses for transportation.

C

21

Identify the statement that is false.

a.

Most native peoples of North America lived in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements prior to the arrival of Europeans.

b.

In more settled agricultural groups, women tended the crops while men hunted.

c.

Many North American groups developed matrilineal cultures, where power and possessions passed down the female side of the family line.

d.

Native Americans rejected the belief that the physical world was endowed with spiritual properties.

e.

Native Americans had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively.

D

22

The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of

a.

its military alliances, sustained by political and organizational skills.

b.

the Iroquois warriors' skill with the Europeans' muskets.

c.

the scattered nature of the Iroquois settlements, which made it difficult for their enemies to defeat them.

d.

the alliance with the Aztecs and Incas.

e.

its use of new weapons.

A

23

All of the following were original territories of North American Indian populations within the current borders of the United States except

a.

Mesoamerica.

b.

Northeast.

c.

Southeast.

d.

Great Plains.

e.

Great Basin.

A

24

Men in the more settled agricultural groups in North America performed all of the following tasks except

a.

hunting.

b.

gathering fuel.

c.

tending crops.

d.

clearing fields for planting.

e.

fishing.

C

25

The early voyages of the Scandinavian seafarers did not result in permanent settlement in North America because

a.

the Native Americans drove them out.

b.

the area in which they landed could not support a large population.

c.

no nation-state supported these ventures.

d.

British adventurers defeated the Scandinavians in 1066.

e.

the settlers died of disease.

C

26

All of the following set into motion the chain of events that led to a drive of Europeans toward Asia, the penetration of Africa, and the discovery of the New World except

a.

economic hardships and overpopulation at home.

b.

growing power of ambitious governments behind them.

c.

they sought contact with a wider world.

d.

they sought territories to conqueror.

e.

they sought new places to trade with.

A

27

The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they

a.

were victorious over the Muslims.

b.

brought back news of valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silk.

c.

succeeded in establishing improved business relations between Muslims and Christians.

d.

returned with captured Muslim maps showing the North and South American continents.

e.

developed better navigational devices.

B

28

Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia in order to

a.

break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia.

b.

reduce the price of goods from Asia.

c.

gain more profits for themselves.

d.

reduce the time it took to transport goods.

e.

All of these

E

29

Before the middle of the fifteenth century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remote and mysterious to Europeans because

a.

there was little of value for them there.

b.

sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible.

c.

Islamic societies prevented Europe from making inroads there.

d.

they did not know that it existed.

e.

they feared the people who lived there.

B

30

Which group was responsible for slave trading in Africa long before the Europeans had arrived?

a.

The Portuguese and Spanish

b.

The English and Scandinavians

c.

The Incas and Aztecs

d.

The Arabs and Africans

e.

The English and Americans

D

31

In the last half of the fifteenth century, some forty thousand Africans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to

a.

work on plantations in Africa.

b.

establish plantations in North America.

c.

establish plantations in South America.

d.

help pay for the gold they took.

e.

work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands.

E

32

The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in the

a.

American South.

b.

Arab slave trade.

c.

Portuguese slave trade.

d.

European feudal system.

e.

African slave system.

C

33

Spain was united into a single nation-state when

a.

it was invaded by Portugal in the late fifteenth century.

b.

Christopher Columbus returned with news of his discovery of the New World.

c.

Prince Henry the Navigator came to the throne.

d.

Ferdinand and Isabella married and the African Moors were expelled.

e.

Ferdinand and Isabella were overthrown.

D

34

The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when

a.

Europeans increasingly demanded less expensive goods from Asia.

b.

Africa was established as a source of slave labor.

c.

the Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long-range ocean navigation.

d.

the Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure.

e.

All of these

E

35

In an effort to reach the Indies, Spain looked westward because

a.

Portugal controlled the African coast.

b.

the Pope granted Spain the right to sail this route.

c.

Muslims blocked the sea route.

d.

the Moors had convinced them to do so.

e.

African tribes constantly menaced the European ships traveling along the coast.

A

36

After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had

a.

discovered a New World.

b.

failed at what he had set out to do.

c.

sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies.

d.

sailed around the world.

e.

reached the shores of Japan.

C

37

Columbus called the native people in the "New World" Indians because

a.

that was what they called themselves.

b.

he believed that he had skirted the rim of the "Indies."

c.

it was a form of the Spanish word for heathen.

d.

the Vikings had first called them by that name.

e.

the Spanish often used this generic word, which meant "outsider" or "non-Spanish."

B

38

The term "Columbian Exchange" describes:

a.

the exporting of precious metals from the New World and the importing of African slaves to the New World.

b.

the gifts Columbus brought to and received from Native Americans.

c.

the trade in Native American furs for European horses and other goods.

d.

the transfer of plants, animals and diseases between the Old and New Worlds.

e.

None of these choices.

D

39

All of the following contributed to the emergence of a new interdependent global economic system except

a.

Europe providing the markets and capital.

b.

Africa providing the labor.

c.

European explorers' desire to create new cultures.

d.

the New World providing its raw materials.

e.

the advancement and improvement of technology.

C

40

Which of the following New World plants revolutionized the international economy?

a.

Maize

b.

Potatoes

c.

Beans

d.

Tomatoes

e.

All of these

E

41

The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in

a.

rapid population growth in Europe.

b.

many illnesses, caused by the new germs contained in these food-stuffs.

c.

an African population decline.

d.

very little change.

e.

an increase in obese people.

A

42

European contact with Native Americans led to

a.

the Europeans' acceptance of the horse into their culture.

b.

the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases.

c.

the introduction into the New World of such plants as potatoes, tomatoes, and beans.

d.

an increase in the Native American population.

e.

the use of tobacco by Native Americans.

B

43

The adoption of horses by Native American tribes such as the Sioux, Apaches and Blackfeet

a.

enabled them to wage more successful wars against their enemies.

b.

allowed them to travel across the vast expanse of North America, from Atlantic to Pacific.

c.

transformed their cultures into wide-ranging, hunter-gather societies that roamed the Great Plains.

d.

led them to shift from agriculture to ranch-based economies.

e.

All of these

C

44

Within a century after Columbus's landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly

a.

20 percent.

b.

50 percent.

c.

70 percent.

d.

90 percent.

e.

100 percent.

D

45

European explorers introduced ____ into the New World.

a.

syphilis

b.

maize

c.

tobacco

d.

smallpox

e.

pumpkin

D

46

According to scholars, the flood of precious New World metals into Spain is responsible for all of the following except

a.

the ballooning of the European money supply.

b.

the foundations of the modern commercial banking system.

c.

the growth of capitalism as an economic system.

d.

a price revolution that dramatically decreased consumer costs.

e.

the spread of commerce and manufacturing.

D

47

The institution of encomienda allowed the

a.

native people to enslave members of other tribes.

b.

Europeans to marry Native Americans.

c.

European governments to give Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them.

d.

governments of Europe to abolish the practice of Indian slavery and to establish African slavery.

e.

Europeans to establish an economy based on capitalism.

C

48

The Dominican Friar Bartolomé de Las Casas is best known for

a.

negotiating the Treaty of Tordesillas.

b.

speaking out against the horrors of the encomienda system on Native Americans.

c.

establishing a mission to bring Christianity to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán.

d.

convincing Spanish Queen Isabella to make Christianity the main focus of Spanish exploration.

e.

All of these

B

49

Malinche has earned a place in history as

a.

the Indian slave woman who served as Cortés's translator with the Mexicans.

b.

the woman whose name is synonymous with "traitor".

c.

the Indian who married one of Cortes's soldiers and traveled to Spain.

d.

the woman who was baptized with the Spanish name Doña Marina.

e.

All of these

E

50

Men became conquistadores because they wanted to

a.

gain God's favor by spreading Christianity.

b.

escape dubious pasts.

c.

seek adventure, as the heroes of classical antiquity had done.

d.

satisfy their desire for gold.

e.

All of these

E

51

The Aztec chief Moctezuma allowed Cortés to enter the capital of Tenochtitlán because

a.

Cortés's army was so powerful.

b.

Montezuma believed that Cortés was the god Quetzalcoatl.

c.

there was little in the city of interest to the Spanish.

d.

he was told to do so by the gods.

e.

the Treaty of Tordesillas gave the capital to the Spanish government.

B

52

In which of the following is the explorer mismatched with the area he explored?

a.

Coronado—New Mexico and Arizona

b.

Ponce de León—Mississippi River Valley

c.

Cortés—Mexico

d.

Pizarro—Peru

e.

Columbus—Caribbean islands

B

53

Which of these statements does NOT describe mestizos?

a.

They were the offspring of Spanish conquistadores who married Indian women.

b.

They were the pagan slaves of Cortes' soldiers.

c.

They formed a cultural and biological bridge between Latin America's European and Indian peoples.

d.

They were considered a "new race."

e.

All of these

B

54

Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to

a.

protect its domains from encroachments by England and France.

b.

gain control of Canada.

c.

gain more slaves.

d.

find a passage to the Pacific Ocean.

e.

look for gold in Florida.

A

55

All of the following are true about Popés Rebellion in 1680, except

a.

Pueblo Indians rebelled when Spanish missionaries sought to suppress native religious customs.

b.

Pueblo Indians destroyed every Catholic church in the province of New Mexico.

c.

the revolt by Pueblo Indians was successfully halted by the Spanish.

d.

Pueblo Indians built a ceremonial religious chamber - kiva - on the ruins of the Spanish plaza.

e.

Spanish priests and settlers were killed in the conflict.

C

56

The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as

a.

at times brutal and exploitative.

b.

firm but fair.

c.

unmotivated by greed.

d.

scornful of intermarriage.

e.

leaving little of Spanish culture.

A

57

Which of the following is the false concept, which held that the Spanish conquerors merely tortured and butchered the Indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind?

a.

Dark Myth

b.

European Legend

c.

Black Legend

d.

Spanish Myth

e.

Tragic Death

C

58

All of the following were true of the Spanish except

a.

they had a century head start of exploration over the English.

b.

they were genuine empire builders.

c.

they were cultural innovators in the New World.

d.

they practiced the same treatment as the English would toward the Indians by isolating and shunning them.

e.

their colonial establishments were larger and richer than those of their Anglo-Saxon rivals.

D

59

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Among the more highly developed Native American (Indian) cultures of North America were the

a.

Mound Builders.

b.

Iroquois.

c.

Pueblos.

d.

Creeks.

e.

Incas.

A, B, C, D, E

60

Europeans learned of the great wealth of Asia from

a.

Christian Crusaders.

b.

the voyages of Norse explorers.

c.

Marco Polo's report of his travels.

d.

the voyages of Christopher Columbus.

e.

Muslim traders.

ACE

61

European voyages of discovery and exploration were facilitated by

a.

the Renaissance.

b.

new naval technology.

c.

the rise of nation-states.

d.

agreement among European monarchs to cooperate in these ventures.

e.

printing presses.

ABCE