# Myers' Psychology for AP*: AP Psychology Unit 2 Flashcards

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it "I-knew-it-all-along"

curiosity

a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being mislead

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

replications

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reporting attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of a group

population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

random sample

every person in the entire group has an equal change of participating

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

correlation

a measure of the intent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

scatterplot

illustration of the range of possible correlations from a perfect positive to a perfect negative

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exist

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent)

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and choral groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

placebo

experimental results cause by expectations alone

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

dependent variable

the outcome factor

mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

median

the middle score in a distribution

range

the difference between the highest and lowest score

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

normal curve

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and transitions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

debriefing

the post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants