Intro Communication Final Exam 2 Flashcards


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1

Recording Arts: Terms

Napster:

easy internet site for pirating, shared info between users

2

Recording Arts :Terms

Analog recording:

  • VHS camera, celluloid film, records onto cassette on magnetic tape, deteriorates overtime, demagnetizes, deteriorates over generations
3

Recording Arts: Terms

Digital recording:

  • stored in binary code, no loss of information over generations
4

Radio:Terms

Radio telegraphy:

    • (Guglielmo Marconi) dots and dashes (not over a cable but over the air)
5

Radio: Terms

Lee De Forest:

AM radio, reliable radio broadcast for broadcasting human voice (invented by

6

Radio:Terms

FRC:

    • Federal Radio Commission (Regulatory body)
7

Radio:Terms

FCC:

    • Federal communication commission (Regulatory body)
8

Radio:Term

FM is:

    • clearer and and longer reaching than AM
9

Film: Term

MPAA

    • Regulatory body Motion Picture Association of America, common criticisms include, rating homosexual sex more harshly than heterosexual sex, is more worried about sex than violence, members are kept secret and often are do not represent the average American very well
10

Film:Term

Daguerreotype:

    • first commercially successful photograph technology, positive image, could not make copies, 30 minute exposure time
11

Film: Terms

Kinetoscope:

    • created by William Dickson, put penny in, watch a personal show, created electronic photography and projector, borrowed from theater
12

Cinematographer:

    • created by Lumiere Brothers, first portable hand crank camera, introduced filming on location
13

TV:Terms

CRT:

    • Cathode ray tube, this tech creates an image on a screen by using a cauum tube containing an electron gun that fires elections at the back of a phosphorescent screen, this is the basis for most computer and TV screens during the 20th century
14

TV:Terms

The image dissector:

    • created by Philo T. Farnsworth, transmitted an image of a dollar sign across a lab
15

TV:Terms

RCA:

    • Radio corporation of America: introduced broadcast TV to the consumers at the world fair
16

Web:Terms

Link ability:

the idea that different sets of information could be connected, like credit card numbers to phones to emails. Used by information agencies to track people.

17

Web: Terms

DARPA:

    • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, created to develop advanced communication capabilities
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Web:Terms

ARPA:

    • net: links military contractors and researchers, early web
19

Web:Terms

TCP

    • Transmission control protocol - a method for computers to have a common language, Created by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn
    • Fathers of the internet
20

Media Literacy:

Design and Presentation :

  • Does the content adhere to the expected grammar of its medium? If not, why not?
  • It the content overtly violent, sexual, religious, or political?
  • Does the content fit into an easily recognizable genre?
21

Media Literacy:

Underlying Political or Social Message :

  • It the content biased? If so why?
  • Does the content use subtext or code words to target to a particular audience.
  • Does the content promote racial, gender, religious, political, or sociology-economic stereotypes.
22

Media Literacy:

Ownership :

  • Does the content come from a recognizable brand, a proven source whose mission statement and internal standards have a high degree of transparency?
  • Is content being presented as news when in fact it is an advertisement or public relations for the owner’s product?
23

Media Literacy:

Regulatory Bodies :

  • Is the content restricted by any governmental or industrial regulatory bodies that might be censoring or otherwise limiting the material?
  • Are regulatory bodies forcing a medial outlet to perform a service, or does that media outlet offer the service of its own accord?
  • FCC, MPAA, ESRB
24

Media Literacy:

Influence on its Audience :

  • What effect is this content designed to have on its target audience? To inform? To affirm? To promote? To entertain? To distract? To obfuscate? To outrage? To foster consumption?
  • Is this content designed to encroach on the media consumer’s private by tracking behavior?
  • Does the content’s intended impact match its actual impact?
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Critical Media Theories:

Classical Marxism :

the ruling (dominate) class controls the media

26

Critical Media Theories:

Political Economical:

media as a commodity, leads to sameness, appeals to lowest common denominator, create the content cheaply and sell as much as possible.

27

Critical Media Theories:

Hegemony :

the domination of a false ideology deeply embedded pervasive and unconscious stereotypes.

28

People /Theorist

William Randolph Hearst:

Donald Trump

In charge of news papers (SF Examiner /NY Journal [had biggest news paper chain in country]), wanted to be powerful (ran for office multiple times).

29

People/ Theorist

Marshall McLuhan:

Media is Media

global village

coined phrases:

  • Media
  • culture of orality = knowledge tightly knit developed cohesive culture
  • culture of print = printed forms of visual communication
  • culture of electronic media = divided people into a hive of highly specialized cells
30

People/ Theorist

Walter Lippmann :

pseudo environment: pictures in people’s heads.

(people are a bewildered heard) Coined term: stereotype wrote public opinion.

31

People/ Theorist

Elizabeth Noelle-Nevmann:

Spiral of Silence

  • People have a quasi-statistical sense of what the prevailing opinion is in a place.
  • If you agree with the majority opinion, you feel free to share your ideas, if not you remain silent. — speak up you are open to being pilloried (pillory function) [young, male, educated]
32

People/Theorist

Elihu Katz and Paul Lazarfeld :

Two Step Flow Hypothesis

  • Information flows from its source through an opinion maker and on to the larger group of media consumers.
  • info source —> opinion maker —> public
33

People/Theorist

George Gerbner :

Cultivation Theory

Communications theorist

founder of cultivation theory

Dean of the Annenberg School of Communication (1964-1989)

Cultivation: the building and maintenance of stable mages of life and society driven by the daily flow of media.

*heavy viewers absorb the images of life on television and accept them as reality

Casting and Fate: Stories on TV teach us lessons about age, gender, race; who are the aggressor and who are the victims.

The more TV you watch the more you believe in the stereotypes and that the world is scary .

34

Heavy viewers think:

  • The world is more violent than it really is. (mean/scary world)
  • More severe jail sentences and more executions will make us safer. (give up freedom to be protected)
  • Young women are more sexual, independent, and frequently victimized.
  • Most people are layers/ doctors/ police.
35

People/Theorist

Everett Rogers :

Diffusion of Innovations (media and interpersonal theory)

Examines how ideas spread: the process by which an innovation is communicated through channels over time among members of a social system.

36

Adopter categories:

  • Innovators: first to adopt, risk takers: young, highly educated, high socioeconomic category
  • Early Adopters: Second to adopt, opinion matters
  • Early Majority: slower to adopt
  • Late Majority: after average member of society has adopted
  • Laggards: last to adopt, adverse to change
  • The media is really good at sensitizing people to a new idea but interpersonal interactions are the ones that are close.
37

Theory

Convergence :

(tech)

The comping together of computing telecommunications, and media, media melding.

Dubious effects: non stop courage, pervasiveness, desensitization to information, personal info space collides with public info space.

38

Theory

Conglomeration :

(business)

Combining of media companies into larger media companies, can lead to media oligopoly with severely limited ownership and diversity of ideas.

Dubious effects: reduction in quality, sameness, corporate instability.