IOC Final

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1

Persuasion

When you ethically but intentionally organize your communication to influence the attitudes, behaviors, and choices of an audience.

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Rhetoric

The art of harnessing reason, emotions, and authority through language with a view to persuade an audience. Also by persuading, to convince this audience to act, to pass judgment, or to identify with given values.

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The 3 Types of Persuasive Speeches

  • Convince
  • Accentuate
  • Intensify Social Cohesion
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Three Types of Persuasive Questions

  • Question of Fact
  • Question of Value
  • Question of Policy
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Question of Fact

Asking about truth or falsity of an assertion

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Question of Value

Worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.

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Question of Policy

Question whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.

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Aristotle's 3 Modes of Persuasion

  • Pathos
  • Ethos
  • Logos
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Pathos

Appeal to emotion

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Ethos

Appeal to ethics

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Logos

Appeal to logic

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The 3 Approaches to Persuasion

  • Combative
  • Expressive
  • Coactive
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Combative Persuasion

Persuasion based on threats, which are only effective while the threat is real and apparent. Creates distance w/ audience and takes away credibility

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Expressive Persuasion

All persuasion is manipulative and not worthy of being studied. This is naive and even dangerous.

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Coactive Persuasion

*What we use*

Bridging distance between yourself and the speaker by using nonverbals of showing listening, "we all know..."

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The 3 Principles of Persuasion

  • Consistency Principle
  • Cognitive Dissonance
  • Gradual Change
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Consistency Principle

Being consistent with ideals and how the audience is being talked to.

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Cognitive Dissonance

Must persuade the audience that the idea/organization is trustworthy.

Change their opinion on the matter with facts and good information.

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Gradual Change

Happens slowly and over time so audience is changing mindset/opinion without realizing it.

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The Cannons of Rhetoric

  • Invention
  • Arrangement
  • Style
  • Memory
  • Delivery
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Ingenium

A faculty of creative imagination and an articulation in language.

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Sensus Communis

Common place or common sense.

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Enthymeme

Internationally incomplete augmentation (growth)

  • Major Premise (Usually Assumed)
  • Minor Premise (Usually Stated)
  • Conclusion (Almost Always Stated)
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Example of Enthymeme

*Example – “If the glove doesn’t fit then you must acquit!”

*If evidence does not fit the defendant, then acquittal is required (major premise - assumed)

*The glove doesn't fit the defendant. (minor premise - stated)

*The glove is evidence. (minor premise - assumed)

*Therefore, you must acquit the defendant. (conclusion - stated)

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Effective Reasoning

  • Building credibility
  • Using evidence
  • Appealing to emotion
  • Reasoning
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Types of Reasoning

  • Deduction
  • Induction
  • Abduction
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Deduction

Logical process in which a conclusions based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true

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Induction

Local process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion

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Abduction

A form of logical interference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation

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Ad Hominem

Attacking a person who questions your argument,

Devalues the statement without addressing the issue.

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Ad Populum

Why waste time with evidence when "everyone" says it is right?

Bandwagon fallacy: everyone else is doing it. Groupthink
dangerous b/c when everyone is included, all it takes is finding one person that the argument does not apply to and then the argument is invalid

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Ad Ignoratiam

Appeal to ignorance, no one here can prove it is false, must be true.

Since you cannot prove that ghosts do not exist, they must exist.

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Ad Vericundium

Appeal to authority, in false reasoning cases, false authority.

My 5th grade teacher once told me that girls will go crazy for boys if they learn how to dance. Therefore, if you want to make the ladies go crazy for you, learn to dance.

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Post Hoc

Causation simply because one followed the other.

Idea that because A happened before B, A is the cause of B

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Non Sequitur

Argument which the conclusion does not follow the premises.

ex) Luda: took your momma nine months to make ya, might as well shake what your momma gave ya

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Begging the Question

Circular reasoning, something is because it is.

The reason everyone wants the new "Slap Me Silly Elmo" doll is because this is the hottest toy of the season!

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Hasty Generalizations

A conclusion is reach with too few or isolated examples.

My father smoked four packs of cigarettes a day since age fourteen and lived until age sixty-nine. Therefore, smoking really can’t be that bad for you.

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Slippery Slope

That taking a step will lead to serious and undesirable consequences.

If you give a mouse a cookie, he'll ask for a glass of milk...

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Red Herring

Intentionally or unintentionally misleading or distracting.

Mike: It is morally wrong to cheat on your spouse, why on earth would you have done that?

Ken: But what is morality exactly?

Mike: It’s a code of conduct shared by cultures.

Ken: But who creates this code?...

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No "True" Scotsman

Appeal that the "true" majority would never allow such action to occur.

All Husker fans cheer loudly. If that person is not cheering loudly, he is not a true Huskers fan.

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Organizational Patterns of Persuasive Speeches

  • Topical
  • Spatial
  • Problem-Solution
  • Problem-Cause-Solution
  • Cause-Effect-Solution
  • Comparative Advantages
  • Monroe's Motivated Sequence
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Monroe's Motivated Sequence

  • Attention - Get attention
  • Need - Convince your audience there's a problem
  • Satisfaction - Introduce your solution
  • Visualization - Describe what the situation will look like if the audience does nothing.
  • Action - Give specific examples to solve solution.
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Maslow's Hierarch of Needs

card image
  • Self-Actualization
  • Self-Esteem Needs
  • Social Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Physiological Needs (Bottom)
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Coactive Persuasion Strategies

Coactive approach bridges the psychological differences. Relies on very strong reasoning, solid evidence, and content (logos). Speaker tries to build rapport with audience.

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Rapport

  • Get audience in the mood to be persuaded
  • You want to be considered kind, caring of their opinion.
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Coactive Persuasion Strategies

  • Stresses benefits and consequences of what is being discussed while also encouraging.
  • Asks audience to act in some type of way
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Receptive Audience

  • Rapport and common ground
  • Purpose
  • Emotion and motivational appeals
  • Call to action
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Neutral Audience

  • Capture attention
  • Rapport
  • Needs of loved ones
  • Set modest goals
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Hostile Audience

  • Be subtle
  • Rapport
  • Acceptance
  • Credibility = key
  • Acknowledge Opposition
  • Modest goals
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Ceremonial Speaking

Keep it simple - Organization

  • Intro - Common values
  • Establish credibility
  • Main points are clear and supported with 'inspiring and entertaining' material
  • Visual aids are especially useful
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Types of S.O.S

  • Acceptance Speeches
  • Commemorative Speeches
  • Toasts
  • Eulogies
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S.O.S

  • Recognize and identify audience
  • Use personal material
  • Keep it clean
  • Stay away from controversy
  • Avoid cliches, over-used figures of speech, & platitudes