Modern Food System

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created 4 years ago by Katie_Bialka
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updated 4 years ago by Katie_Bialka
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sociology
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1

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • Produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops and goods, including fruits and vegetables – meats, grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered produce. More specifically, the term "produce" often implies that the products are fresh and generally in the same state as where they were harvested. In supermarkets, the term is also used to refer to the section where fruit and vegetables are kept.

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • There is NO single food that is uniformly consumed by people around the world. Though the cuisine and taste greatly differs in different parts of the world, many of the basic food ingredients remain the same. Going by the demand-supply relationship, we can consider wheat, rice, potatoes, maize (corn) and sugarcane as basic food items and the top five commodities produced in the world when measured in tons.
  • Let's look at the top Producers
2

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • CHINA: China has a huge agricultural sector (farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries) that contributes to 10% of its gross domestic product (GDP).
  • China is a spectacular combination of an industrial and agricultural economy. On one hand, it is called the “world’s factory” for the massive manufacturing done in the country, and on the other hand, it is the largest agricultural economy.
  • The contribution of agriculture to GDP has largely remained the same at 10 percent over the last decade, though it has substantially decreased from what it was two to three decades back.

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • The agricultural sector employs about one-third of the country’s total employed population. China is the world’s largest producer of wheat, rice and potatoes. It is the second-largest producer of maize and the third-largest producer of sugarcane.
3

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • United States

The United States is the world’s largest and most powerful economy with a GDP of $17 trillion. The agricultural sector in the US is highly mechanized, which has resulted in it being among the top producers despite the fact that just one percent of the total employed population is employed in agriculture. And while agriculture contributes only about one percent to the GDP, the US is the world’s largest producer of maize (corn), the third-largest producer of wheat, fifth-largest producer of potatoes, tenth-largest producer of sugarcane and twelfth-largest producer of rice.

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • India

Although the importance of agriculture for India’s economy has substantially decreased over the years, it remains an important sector, contributing around 18 percent to the country’s GDP and providing employment to approximately 45 percent of its population. While the share of the sector towards the GDP has reduced from more than 30 percent in 1980’s, the overall modernization, productivity and resources have increased.

4

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • Russia

Russia’s economy has undergone a transformation since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, transforming into a market-based open economy from an earlier centrally planned economy. The agricultural sector, which employs 10 percent of the population, accounts for four percent of the $2.05 trillion economies. It uses just about 13 percent of Russia’s land area because of the country's climatic and geographical limitations. Out of the total agricultural products produced, about 40 percent is from crop farming and the remaining 60 percent from livestock, including wool, meat and dairy farming. Russia is the third-largest producer of potatoes, fourth-largest wheat producer and twelfth-largest producer of maize

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

  • Brazil

Brazil is among the most prominent South American economies. Brazil’s economy is primarily service sector-oriented, and agriculture contributes just about six percent to its GDP of $2.24 trillion. The agricultural sector employs 15 percent of the workforce and uses 30 percent of the land area. Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer, third-largest producer of maize and ninth-largest producer of rice.

5

HOW DO WE GET OUR PRODUCE?

The Bottom Line

Some other countries specialize in one or two of the top commodities. For example, Indonesia is the third-largest producer of rice, Canada is the largest lentil producer, and Nigeria is the top producer for cassava. But on the whole, China, the US, India, and Russia contribute a major chunk to the world’s food basket.

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

  • Today, the majority of American farmland is dominated by industrial agriculture—the system of chemically intensive food production developed in the decades after World War II, featuring enormous single-crop farms and animal production facilities. Like in the video that our class watched at the beginning of the semester.
  • Back then, industrial agriculture was hailed as a technological triumph that would enable a skyrocketing world population to feed itself. Today, a growing chorus of agricultural experts—including farmers as well as scientists and policymakers—sees industrial agriculture as a dead end, a mistaken application to living systems of approaches better suited for making jet fighters and refrigerators.
  • The impacts of industrial agriculture on the environment, public health, and rural communities make it an unsustainable way to grow our food over the long term. And better, science-based methods are available.
6

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

  • At the core of industrial food production is monoculture—the practice of growing single crops intensively on a very large scale. Corn, wheat, soybeans, cotton and rice are all commonly grown this way in the United States.
  • Monoculture farming relies heavily on chemical inputs such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The fertilizers are needed because growing the same plant (and nothing else) in the same place year after year quickly depletes the nutrients that the plant relies on, and these nutrients have to be replenished somehow. The pesticides are needed because monoculture fields are highly attractive to certain weeds and insect pests.

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

  • Did you know that more than 6,000 additives and chemicals are used by food manufacturers to process and produce our food? Today our farmers and conventional food system is heavily dependent on toxic chemicals and synthetic inputs that also pose threats to people’s health.
7

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

  • Meat production: In the industrial system of meat production, meat animals are "finished"—prepared for slaughter—at large-scale facilities called CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations), where their mobility is restricted and they are fed a high-calorie, grain-based diet, often supplemented with antibiotics and hormones, to maximize their weight gain. Their waste is concentrated and becomes an environmental problem, not the convenient source of fertilizer that manure can be for more diverse, less massively scaled farms.

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

  • No matter what methods are used, agriculture always has some impact on the environment. But industrial agriculture is a special case: it damages the soil, water, and even the climate on an unprecedented scale.
  • Intensive monoculture depletes soil and leaves it vulnerable to erosion. Chemical fertilizer runoff and CAFO wastes add to global warming emissions and create oxygen-deprived "dead zones" at the mouths of major waterways. Herbicides and insecticides harm wildlife and can pose human health risks as well. Biodiversity in and near monoculture fields takes a hit, as populations of birds and beneficial insects decline.
8

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

  • Antibiotics: Whenever we attack a population of unwanted organisms (such as weeds or bacteria) repeatedly with the same weapon, we give an evolutionary advantage to genes that make the organism less vulnerable to that weapon. Over time, those genes become more widespread, and the weapon becomes less useful—a phenomenon called resistance. Industrial agriculture has accelerated resistance problems on at least two fronts.

HOW IS OUR FOOD PRODUCED?

CONT.:

  • Overuse of antibiotics in meat production (in the U.S., more antibiotics are consumed each year by healthy animals than by sick humans) has contributed to a growing problem of antibiotic resistance that is having a serious impact on the treatment of infectious diseases.
9

WHAT IS THE FOOD CODE?

  • The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) publishes the Food Code, a model that assists food control jurisdictions at all levels of government by providing them with a scientifically sound technical and legal basis for regulating the retail and food service segment of the industry (restaurants and grocery stores and institutions such as nursing homes). Local, state, tribal, and federal regulators use the FDA Food Code as a model to develop or update their own food safety rules and to be consistent with national food regulatory policy.

WHAT IS THE FOOD CODE?

  • The FDA is the government agency responsible for reviewing, approving and regulating medical products, including pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. It also regulates various other products, including food, cosmetics, veterinary drugs, radiation-emitting products, biological products and tobacco.
10

WHAT IS THE FOOD CODE:

  • The FDA affects our food supply by regulating what people can consume, how people consume the food. The FDA regulations are there to keep us safe and be able inform people around the world about food borne illnesses and other harmful factors that come with the food we eat in our everyday lives.
  • FDA is responsible for
    • protecting the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, quality, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products, and medical devices. The FDA is also responsible for the safety and security of most of our nation’s food supply, all cosmetics, dietary supplements and products that give off radiation.

WHAT IS THE FOOD CODE?

  • In general, FDA regulates: Foods, including:
    • dietary supplements
    • bottled water
    • food additives
    • infant formulas
    • other food products (although the U.S. Department of Agriculture plays a lead role in regulating aspects of some meat, poultry, and egg products)