Exercise Physiology final exam

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1

Different types of muscle

Smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

2

Skeletal Muscle Architecture Hierarchy

entire muscle- fasiculi- muscle fiber- myrofibrils- sarcomere- actin/myosin complex

3

Define: transverse tubules

subway transports the electrical movement (action potential) to the SR. Carries AP to deep muscle fiber

4

Define: sarcoplasmic reticulum

release Ca2+ which then reacts with the actin and mysoin to contract the muscle

5

Define: Mitochondria

"Powehouse" pf the cell. used to breakdown nutrients to produce energy for various types of contraction, fuel source

6

What is needed to make an actin-myosin crossbridge

1) calicium

2) ATP

7

Three types of muscle fibers

  1. type one: slow twitch- small neurons, high resistance to fatigue, aerobic, low force production, many capilaries, slow relay, red
  2. type two a: fast twitch- fast, large neuron, intermediate resistance to fatigue, ATP_Pcr and glycongen, many capilaries, and pink
  3. type two b: very fast twitch- very fast, large neurons, low resistance to fatigue, ATP_Pcr, few capilaries, white
8

Three types of muscle contractions

  1. concentric: shortening
  2. isometic: no movment
  3. escentric: lengthens
9

Different shapes of the muscle

-pennate: produced the most force

-longitudial:

-overal: contractions

(structure dictates function)

10

define: muscle fatigue

the reduction in maximal force-generating capacity of a muscle

  1. decrease in muscle performance with continued effort, accompanied by sensation of tireness
  2. inability to maintain required power output to continue muscle work at any given intensity
11

Two common sites of Muscular Fatigue

1) central (pyscological, integration, and chemical messenger)

2) peripheral (metabolic depletion)

12

What are common hypothese for muscle fatigue in the central nervous system

1) thermoregulation: brain gets too hot

2) central governor: if Q limits performance than muscle activation must be decreased to protect blood flow in the CNS

13

What are common hypothese for muscle fatigue in the peripheral nervous system

1) subtrate depletion

  1. ATP
  2. PCR
  3. glycogen

2)accumulation

  1. H+
  2. Pi
14

What is ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

  • smallest unit of energy
  • our bodies break down food molecules and breaks it down to ATP
15

What is an enzyme

  • biological catalyst
  • accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction
  • depended on
    • Ph
    • temperature
    • aviability of substrate
16

Four pathways for making ATP

  1. Immediate
    • ATP-PCR (oxygen independent)
  2. intermediate
    • oxygen independent glycolysis
  3. Long term
    • oxygen dependent glycolysis
    • normal daily activity
    • glycosis plus kreb cycle and ETC
  4. glyconeogensis
    • protein
    • typically used during starvation
    • catabolism of muscles
17

You need _______ state measurements and varying level of _________ measurements for O2 consumption and calories burned

resting; exercise

18

Two things energy expenditure at rest

1) BMR (basil metabolic rate): maintain vital function

2) RMR (resting metabolic rate): maintain vital function plus digestion

19

Factors effecting BMR/RMR

  1. physical activity (most important)
  2. Diet-induced thermogensis (DIT)
  3. Climate
  4. hormones
  5. age
20

Metabolism ______ in dirrection proportion to the ________ in exercise intensity

2x(increase)

21

During exercise at constant power output vo2max increases from its resting values to stready value with ____-___ min

1-2 min

22

There is a _____ increase in the vo2 with increase in power output (some exceptions)

linear

23

Three things that VO2 and RMR can tell us

  1. Vo2(l/min)=[FiO2*Vi]-[FeO2*Ve]
  2. three gasses make up insire air
    • nitrogen
    • oxygen
    • Co2
  3. The Haldane transformation allows us to calulate Vi from Ve because nitrogen is constant
24

What is VO2max

Maximal rate at whihc an individual can diliever and use 02 during strenous physical activity. Single best measurement of CVS endurance and aerobic fitness.

  • Increases with physical activity
  • decreases after age of 25-30 by 1% a year
25

Vo2max: ________: gas analysis by treadmill or bicycle

research

26

VO2max: _____: estimate or prediction using an equation

field

27

Units for absolute Vo2max

l/min

28

Units for relative Vo2max

ml/(kg*min)

29

What is ECOP

  • Exercise Post O2 consumption
  • ECOP never equal O2 consumption
  • ECOP greater than o2 deficit
  • O2 consumption greater than O2 demand
    • EPOC
    • replinishes ATP/PCR stores, converts hemo/myoglobin
    • clears co2
30

define: cardiac output

rate at which blood in pumped out of the hear

31

Equation for Q (or CO)

Q=HR*SV

32

Define: stroke volume

the amount of blood your heart push out of the heart

33

equation of stroke volume

EDV (End diastolic volume: amount of blood in your heart when it relaxes)- ESV (end systolic volume: amount of blood after heart contracts)

34

What is ejection fraction (EF)

% of EDV pumped

(effectiveness of heart)

35

What is pre-load

volume of blood in ventricle at end of diastole (EDP)

36

what is after-load

resistance left ventricle must overcome to circulate blood (TPR determinants of after-load)

37

Two mechanisms that help blood flow

  • vasodilation: dilation, increase diameter
  • vasoconstriction: constriction, decrease in diameter
38

After the start of exercise _________ occurs to muscles in use and ______ to muscle not in use

vasodilation; vasoconstriction

39

What is pulmonary ventilation

the process of air moving in and out of lings

40

Do the lungs have large surface area

yes

41

hierarchy of lungs

trachea- bronchi- bronchioles- alveolis

42

Two zones of lungs

  1. conducting
    1. trachae
    2. bronchioles
  2. respiratory
    1. respiratory broncholies
    2. alveolar ducks
    3. alveoli
43

What happens during inspiration

  1. diaphragm contracts
  2. chest cavity enlarges and lungs expand
  3. intrpulmonic pressure decreases
  4. air is sucked in
44

What happens during expiration

rest/light exercise

  1. streched lung tissue recoils
  2. inspiratory muscle relaxes
  3. air mmoves to atomsphere

exercise

  1. same
  2. intercostal and abs are used
45

How both chemical and non-chemical mechanism fit together (three steps of how respiratoration happens during exercise)

  1. starts to exercise
  2. mmv increases to steady state
  3. tightly regulated steady state
46

Two steps in recovery of exercise in respiratory system

  1. an abrupt decline in ventilation reflects removal of central command and input from recpetors in active muscles
  2. slow recovery phase form gradual metabolic, chemical and thermal adjustments
47

What is POAH, what does it do for tempature

  • Preoptic-anterior hypothalmus
    • BODY'S thermostate
    • SNS receptors
48

SNS __________ (VS) minimizes heat loss, SNS ____________ (VD) enhances heat loss

vasoconstriction;vasodilation

49

what does the endocrine gland efforts, do for tempature

  • increase metabolism, which in turn increases heat production
  • cooling: releasing of thyroxine (stimulates of heat production
50

What does eccrine sweat gland, do for tempature

  • SNS stimuluation of SNS, which in return E heat loss
  • acetylcholine
  • more responsive to change in core temp than skin temp
51

What does skeltal muscle effectors do for tempature

  • help generate add heat via shievering
  • involuntary cycles of constriction and relaxation of muscles
  • only heat production no useful work
52

What happens in heat acclimatization (physiological factors)

  1. (heat during exercise)= better performance in hot conditions
  2. CVS optizes
  3. sweat rate, distibution, and content changes
  4. lower core tempature
  5. plasma volume increases
  6. decrease in heart rate
  7. increase cardiac output
  8. lead to dangerous Na+ loss
53

what are acute responses to altitude

  1. pulmonary ventilation increases immediately (hyperventilation)
  2. respiratory alkalosis=high blood pressure
  3. kidneys excrete more bicarbonate
  4. decrease alveolar PO2 leads to decrease o2 hemoglobin saturation
  5. gas exchange at muscles decrease
  6. cardiac output increases
  7. (after few days muscles exert more o2
  8. BMR increases
  9. more reliance on glucose than fat
  10. increase in anarobic metabolism which leads to increase LA
    decrease in VO2max as altiude increases
54

what is the relationship between body composition and preformance

  • less fat usually= better preformance
    • (except- sumo wesslers, swimmers, weight lifters)
  • guide should be give per sport
55

what is fat free mass

this includes muscle

  • increases good for power, strength, and muscle endurance
  • but bad for aerobic endurance
56

What is fat

dead weight bbut useful source of energy

57

Explain children and endurance exercise as regard to VO2max heart size and lung size

  • resting and submaximal blood pressure lower
  • smaller hearts
  • lower SV
  • higher HR
  • slighly lower Q
  • (A-V)O2 difference will increase to furture compensate
  • lower glycolytic capacity
  • relys more on fat
  • poor enconomy
  • limited anarobic preformance
58

What will increase with age for children and exercise

  1. lung function
  2. peak flow rate
  3. metabolic function
  4. endurance running
  5. growth hormone
  6. insuline like growth factors
59

explain what happens to vo2max with aging

  • reduce maximal HR
  • sedenditary habits increase risk for vascular age
  • exercise leads to decrease in risk
  • decrease 1% per year (if active male slower deccline)
  • % decline in Vo2max related to the intensity of training
60

what will decrease with age

  1. maximal SSV
  2. Vo2max
  3. peripheral blood flow
  4. lung and chest wall elastic
61

CVS decrements factors of VO2max in aging?

  1. genetics
  2. general activity
  3. intensity levle
  4. volume of training
  5. age relate body comp
  6. age rangexae
62

explain the exercise science area where women outperform men

  • women outperform men during ultra-endurance event
  • equal at marathons
  • men are quicker at 10km
63

Why can women outpreform men in ultra-distances

  • women can sustain higher VO2maxes longer
  • flexibity of muscles
  • estergon
  • women to burn more fat and spare glycogen, allowing for better preformance