Exam 4 A&P1

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1

The peripheral nervous system includes?

All the neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord; provides a link to the outside world

2

What are exteroceptors?

Neuro receptors outside the body

3

What are interoceptors?

Neuro receptors inside the body (usually involuntary)

4

What are proprioceptors?

Neuro receptors within organs (visceral - muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments - informs the brain of movements)

5

What are the 2 divisions of the PNS?

Sensory (afferent)

Motor (efferent)

6

Within the motor (efferent) division of the nervous system, what are the 2 subdivisions?

Somatic (skeletal)

Autonomic (involuntary)

7

Within the autonomic subdivision of the PNS, what are the 2 subdivisions?

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

8

The sympathetic system is known as the?

"Fight or flight"

9

The parasympathetic system is known as the?

"rest and digest"

10

What are sensations defined as?

awareness of stimuli

11

What are perceptions defined as?

interpretation of meaning of stimuli

12

Receptors are based on: ______ , _______ , ______.

location

type

structure

13

What are the 5 classifications of PNS receptors?

mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, nociceptors

14

Are the special sense are classified as exteroceptors or interceptors?

exteroceptors

15

Thermoreceptors notify the body of temperatures, what area of the skins feels heat and what are feels cold?

Heat - deeper dermis

Cold - superficial dermis

16

(T/F) Some pain impulses are blocked by inhibitory endogenous opioids (endorphins).

TRUE

17

What is referred pain?

pain from on body region perceived from a different region

ex. left arm pain during heart attack

18
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Label the Nerve Structure:

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19

(T/F) PSN fibers regenerate, CSN fibers don't.

TRUE

20

List all the cranial nerves and their function.

olfactory - sensory

optic - sensory

oculomotor - motor

trochlear - motor

trigeminal - both

abducens - motor

facial - both

vestibulocochlear - sensory

glossopharyngeal - both

vagus - both

accessory - motor

hypoglossal - motor

21

How many nerves are their in the spine:

Cervical? Thoracic? Lumbar? Sacral? Coccygeal?

Cervical - 8

Thoracic - 12

Lumbar - 5

Sacral - 5

Coccygeal - 1

22

Where does the spinal cord end and what does it become?

L2, cauda equina

23

What are the 5 parts of the brachial plexus?

(randy travis drinks cold beer)

roots

trunks

divisions

cords

branches

24

What are the 5 brachial nerves?

(my aunt rapes my uncle)

musculocutaneous

ulnar

radial

median

axillary

25

Describe the sciatic nerve.

logest and thickest nerve in the body

innervates hamstrings, adductors, leg & foot muscles

26

What is Hilton's law (meaning)?

"any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates joint and skin over joint" (the names are all usually similar)

27

What is a dermatome?

an area of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root; destruction of a nerve will not cause numbness because they overlap

28

What is plexus?

a network of nerves or vessels in the body

29

What are the 2 types of reflexes?

inborn ( intrinsic) - involuntary

learned (acquired) - voluntary

30

What are the 5 components of the reflex arc (neural pathway)?

1. receptor

2. sensory

3. integration

4. motor

5. effector

31

What are the classifications or reflexes (somatic and autonomic)?

somatic - activate skeletal muscles

autonomic - activate smooth and cardiac muscles

32

(T/F) It is common for there to be an overlap of both the somatic and autonomic fibers (skeletal muscles and visceral organs).

TRUE

33

What is "dual innervation"?

the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems working together to maintain homeostasis

34

What is the location of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems?

sympathetic - thoracic lumbar

parasympathetic - cranial sacral

35

Which had long postganglianic fibers and short preganglianic fibers?

sympathetic

36

Which has long preganglianic fibers and short postganglianic fibers?

parasympathetic

37

What is sympathetic tone?

blood vessels are kept in a continual state of partial constriction to to control blood pressure

38

What is parasympathetic tone?

smooth muscle and glands are regulated

39

Describe how parasympathetic and sympathetic systems work together during reproduction?

parasympathetic system - responsible for erection of penis and clitoris

sympathetic system - responsible for ejaculation and contraction

40

(T/F) The hypothalamus controls the sympathetic system.

TRUE

41

What is hypertension?

high blood pressure due to overactive sympathetic vasoconstrictor response to stress

42

What is autonomic dysreflexia?

uncontrolled activation of the ANS in people with spinal injuries that skyrockets BP and is life threatening

43

What is orthostatic hypotension?

low BP associated with aging

44

What are the 5 special senses?

vision, taste, equilibrium, smell, hearing

45

What percentage of the body's sensory receptors are in the eye?

70%

46

What is the lacrimal glands and caruncle?

glands - produces tears

caruncle (corner of eye) - produces oils and sweat

47

What are the tarsal glands in the eye?

they secrete oil to lubricate the eye

48

What are the ciliary glands in the eye?

modified sweat glands (infection is called a stye)

49

What are the conjunctiva in the eye?

the mucous membrane covering on the eye

50

Muscles of the eye and which CN controls them.

LR6 SO4

R3

lateral rectus - 6th CN - abducens

superior oblique - 4th CN - trochlear (pulley)

rest (superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique) - 3rd CN - oculomotor

51
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Eye Anatomy

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52

What is catarac?

cloudiness of lens due to a build up of crystallization proteins

53

What is glaucoma?

blocked drainage of aqueous humor increases eye pressure, causing compression if the retina and the optic nerves that leads to blindness

54

(T/F) There is both visible and nonvisible light (400 - 700nm).

TRUE

55

What is myopia?

nearsightedness, the eye is too long, need a concave lense

56

What is hyperopia?

farsightedness, the eye is too short, need a convex lense

57

How does the eye focus to see?

accommodation of lenses

constriction of pupils

convergence of eyeball

58

What is presbyopia?

farsightedness due to aging

59

Where is the focal point when looking at an image in a normal eye?

one spot on the retina

60

What are rods?

neurons that allow us to see grey tones, dark light is needed

61

What are cones?

neurons that allow us to see color, bright light is needed

62

What is colorblindness?

lack of 1 or more cone pigment

63

What is nyctalopia?

"nighttime blindness", rod degeneration usually from a lack of vitamin A

64

What is olfaction and gustation?

olfaction - smell

gustation - taste

65

What are the 5 basic taste sensations?

sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami

66

Taste is ___% of smell?

80%

67

What are the 3 major areas of the ear?

1. external

2. middle (tympanic cavity)

3. inner (control equilibrium as well as hearing)

68

What is the tympanic membrane?

the eardrum

69

What are the 3 ossicles of the ear?

malleus, incus, stapes

70

What is sound defined as?

pressure disturbances produced by vibrating objects

71

(T/F) Sound waves radiate outward in all directions.

TRUE

72

What is frequency (sound)?

card image

the number of waves that pass a given point (the shorted the wave length, the higher the sound frequency)

73

What is pitch (sound)?

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high frequency = high pitch

low frequency = low pitch

74

What is quality (sound)?

the richness and complexity of sound

75

What is amplitude (sound)?

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the height of the crest - loundness

76

Why do people get motion sick?

the sensory input doesn't match the visual input - visual is different from equilibrium

77

What is conduction deafness and sensorineural deafness?

conduction - blocked sound conduction (impact cerumen)

sensorineural - damage to the cells (the hair can no longer pick up on vibrations well)

78

What is tinnitus?

ringing or clicking in the ear, a symptom not condition itself

79

What is Meziere's Syndrome?

an inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, nausea, headache, tinnitus

80

(T/F) Chemical senses (tast/smell) decline with aging.

TRUE

81

Describe how babies see?

babies are hypertonic - they only see grey tones

their eye movement is uncoordinated

they produce no tears for 2 weeks

82

What is presbycusis?

loss of high pitch hearing due to aging