Myers' Psychology for AP*: AP Psychology Unit 6 Flashcards


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1

habituation

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

2

associative learning

learning that certain events occur together

3

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

4

behaviorism

the view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes

5

unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth

6

unconditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response

7

conditioned response

in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (LEARNED RESPONSE)

8

conditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

9

acquisition

initial learning

10

higher-order conditioning

new neural stimulus can become a new conditioned stimulus

11

extinction

diminished responding that occurs when the CS (tone) no longer signals an impending US (food)

12

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

13

generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

14

discrimination

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

15

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

16

respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

17

operant conditioning

a type of leaning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

18

operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

19

law of effect

reward behavior is likely to recur

20

operant chamber

Skinner's box

21

shaping

a procedure in which reinforces gradually guide an animals actions toward a desired behavior

22

discriminative stimulus

in operant conditions, a stimulus that clicks a response after association with reinforcement

23

reinforcer

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

24

postive reinforcement

strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response

25

negative reinforcement

strengthens a response by reducing or removing something undesirable or unpleasant

26

primary reinforcers

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

27

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer

28

continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

29

partial reinforcement

which responses are sometimes reinforced, sometimes not

30

fixed ration schedule

reinforce behavior after a set number of responses

31

variable-ration schedule

provide reinforcers after and unpredictable number of responses

32

fixed-interval schedules

reinforce the first response after a fixed time period

33

variable-interval schedules

reinforce that first response after varying the intervals

34

intrinsic

belonging to a thing by its vary nature

35

extrinsic

not essential or inherent

36

cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment

37

latent learning

learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it

38

insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

39

intrinsic motivation

a desire to preform a behavior effectively for its own sake

40

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

41

biofeedback

a system of recording

42

observational learning

learning by observing others

43

modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

44

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when preforming certain actions or when observing another doing so

45

prosocial behavior

postitive, constructive, helpful behavior

46

prosocial

positive, helpful