Western Civiization Ch 12

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1

In contrast to the civic humanists, Castiglione, in his book The Courtier, stressed as the hallmark of true nobility:

an ideal of effortlessness and elegance at court.

2

The larger size and stability of the caravels and subsequent ship designs of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries

enabled Europeans to operate from floating artillery platforms.

3

Renaissance architects followed the theories and writings of the Roman architect and engineer

Vitruvius.

4

One of the major ancient authors who was rediscovered and studied by many Renaissance scholars was

Plato.

5

One of the reasons Raphael’s School of Athens is of interest is that

many of Raphael's contemporaries were used as models for the various philosophers.

6

The term Reconquista refers to the

defeat of the final Muslim principality in Spain, Grenada

7

Conceptually having succeeded in the crusade against Granada, through her sponsorship of Columbus’ voyages, Isabella

helped export the tradition of crusading to the New World.

8

Beginning in the 1440s, design changes in Portuguese caravels allowed them to

sail with two masts and triangular sails, which promoted faster travel.

9

The Reconquista effectively ended Muslim rulers’ policy of

convivencia.

10

Prince Henry the Navigator was motivated to promote voyages of discovery and colonization by

the desire for African gold and to join in the Ottoman slave trade.

11

The Spanish modeled their Caribbean sugar plantations, worked by enslaved African laborers, on:

Portuguese sugar plantations on the Cape Verde Islands and the island of Saint Thomas.

12

To promote the unity of Spain and foster its continued development as a nation-state, Ferdinand and Isabella

promoted Castilian Spanish as the single national language.

13

Within a generation of Columbus’s first voyage,

European diseases had spread widely in the Caribbean and along the American coastlines.

14

Marsilio Ficino taught that human beings are capable of attaining their own salvation:

by understanding the separation of their souls from their bodies

15

Although he did manage to discover a world unknown to Europeans, Christopher Columbus did so in spite of

gross miscalculation of the earth's size.

16

The first European colonies established geographically outside of Europe were in the:

Atlantic Ocean.

17

The industry that most fundamentally shaped the sixteenth-century Spanish colonies in Central and South America was

mining

18

During the Renaissance, sculpture broke with the past in that statuary

depicted freestanding figures "in the round."

19

The leader of the first European expedition to reach Asia by sailing west was

Ferdinand Magellan.

20

A key assistant and partner to Cortés in his assault on the Aztecs was

la Malinche.

21

After confederating their kingdoms through marriage, Ferdinand and Isabella devoted their energies to

creating one of Europe's most powerful armies.

22

According to Machiavelli, the ideal form of government for his native city of Florence was

a republic modeled on the Roman example.

23

Michelangelo’s greatest achievement as a painter was the

Sistine Chapel.

24

Machiavelli felt that Cesare Borgia

might help make Italy fit for self-governance again.

25

One of Leonardo da Vinci’s lasting legacies was his

pioneering use of one-point perspective.