Chapter 64 Workbook Exercise 2-3

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1

Mesoderm

The majority of the musculoskeletal system is formed from the primitive _____ arising from mesenchymal cells that are the embryonic connective tissues.

2

Somites, mesoderm

The vertebral column and ribs arise from the _____, and the limbs arise from the lateral plate ______.

3

Ectoderm

Initially the limbs have a paddle shape with a ridge of thickened _____, known as the apical ectodermal ridge, at the apex of each bud.

4

8th

The fingers are distinctly evident by day 49, although they are still webbed, and by the ____ week of development, the fingers are longer.

5

9th

Development of the feet and toes is essentially complete by the _____ week, although the soles of the feet are still turned inward at this time.

6

Dysplasia

The term used to describe abnormal growth and density of cartilage and bone is skeletal ______.

7

Assessed limb shortening, assess bone contour, estimate degree of ossification, evaluate the thoracic circumference and shape, survey for coexistent hand and foot anomalies, evaluate the face and profile, and survey for other associated anomalies

When skeletal dysplasia is suspected, the protocol of the obstetrical ultrasound examination should be adjusted to include the following criteria:

8

Thanatophoric dysplasia

Type 1 ______ is characterized by short, curved femurs and flat vertebral bodies.

9

Short; cloverleaf

Type 2 is characterized by straight, ______ femurs, flat vertebral bodies, and a _____ skull.

10

Achondroplasia

The most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia is ______.

11

Rhizomelia, macrocephaly, trident hands, I depressed nasal bridge, frontal bossing, and mild ventriculomegaly may be identified

The sonographic features of achondroplasia may not be evident until after 22 weeks of gestation when biometry becomes abnormal. Sonographic findings include the following:

12

Bone; hypomineralization

Achondrogenesis is caused by cartilage abnormalities that result in abnormal _____ and _______.

13

Brittle; sclera

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare disorder of collagen production leading to _____ bones; manifestations in the teeth, skin, and ligaments; and blue ______.

14

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Type 2 osteogenesis is considered the most severe form of ______ having a lethal outcome.

15

Hypophosphatasia

A condition that presents with diffuse hypomineralization of the bone caused by an alkaline phosphatase deficiency is congenital _______.

16

Bowing

Camptomelic (bent bone) dysplasia is a group of lethal skeletal dysplasia is that are characterized by _____ of the long bones.

17

Limbs

Short rib polydactyly syndrome is a lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by short ribs, short _____, and polydactyly.

18

Narrow; atrial septal defect

Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome may present with a _____ thorax, causing pulmonary hypoplasia, and heart defects, the most common of which is the _______.

19

Sirenomelia

An anomaly in which there is fusion of the lower extremities is _____.

20

3; single

For the VACTERL association to be considered, ____ features must be identified; a _____ umbilical artery may also be identified.

21

Amniotic band

Amputation defects may be identified as total or partial absence and may be associated with ______ syndrome.

22

Talipes

Clubfoot, also known as ____ describes deformities of the foot and ankle.

23

Rocker-bottom

______ foot is characterized by a prominent heel and a convex sole.