Chapter 62 Workbook Exercise 3-5

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1

Foregut

The derivatives of the ______ are the pharynx, lower respiratory system, esophagus, stomach, part of the duodenum, liver and biliary apparatus, and pancreas.

2

Esophageal atresia

When ______ occurs, amniotic fluid cannot pass to the intestines for absorption, and hydramnios results.

3

Foregut

The stomach appears as a fusiform dilation of the caudal part of the _____.

4

Lesser sac

The dorsal mesogastrium is carried to the left during rotation of the stomach and formation of a cavity known as the omental bursa or ______ of peritoneum.

5

Epiploic foramen

The lesser sac communicates with the main peritoneal cavity or greater peritoneal sac through a small opening, called the ______.

6

Caudal; midgut

The duodenum develops from the ____ part of the foregut and the cranial part of the _____.

7

Distal

The junction of the two embryonic parts of the duodenum in the adult is just ____ to the entrance of the common bile duct.

8

Stenosis; atresia

Normally the duodenum is recanalized by the end of the 8th week. Partial or complete failure of the process results in duodenal _____ (narrowing) or duodenal ______ (blockage).

9

Umbilical; two

The liver grows rapidly and intermingles with the vitelline and _____ veins, divides into ____ parts, and fills most of the abdominal cavity.

10

Hematopoiesis

During the 6th week, _____ (blood formation) begins and accounts for the large size of the liver between the 7th and 9th weeks of development.

11

Midgut

The derivatives of the _____ are the small intestines (including most of the duodenum), the cecum and vermiform appendix, the ascending colon, and most of the transverse colon. all of these structures are supplied by the mesenteric artery.

12

Meckel's Diverticulum

A remnant of the proximal part of the yolk stalk that fails to degenerate and disappear during the early fetal period is a _____.

13

Fluid-filled

The stomach should be identified as a(n) _____ structure in the left upper quadrant inferior to the diaphragm.

14

20; 30

If no fluid is apparent, the stomach should be reevaluated in ___ to ____ minutes to rule out the possibility of a central nervous system problem (swallowing disorders), obstruction, oligohydramnios, or atresia.

15

Portal; umbilical

The abdominal circumference is measured at the level of the ____ sinus and the _____ portion of the left portal vein ("hockey stick" appearance on the sonogram).

16

Color

The insertion of the umbilical cord must be imaged with ____ because it inserts into both the fetal abdomen and into the placenta.

17

Swallowing

The fetus is capable of _____ sufficient amounts of amniotic fluid to permit visualization of the stomach by 11 menstrual weeks.

18

Meconium

After the 15th to 16th week, _____ begins to accumulate in the distal part of the small intestine as a combination of desquamated cells, bile pigments, and mucoproteins.

19

Hyperechoic

The region of the small bowel can be seen because it is slightly _____ compared with the liver and may appear "masslike" in the central abdomen and pelvis.

20

Peristalsis

After 27 weeks, _____ of normal small bowel is increasingly observed.

21

Haustral folds

The _____ of the colon help to differentiate from the small bowel.

22

Colon

The _____ does not have peristalsis as the small bowel does.

23

Hypoechoic

The meconium within the lumen of the colon appears _____ relative to the fetal liver and in comparison with the bowel wall.

24

Left; right

The ____ lobe of the liver is larger than the _____ in utero secondary to the greater supply of oxygenated blood.

25

20

The normal gallbadder may be seen sonographically after ____ weeks of gestation.

26

Situs inversus

_____ may present as a total reversal of the thoracic and abdominal organs or as a portal reversal.

27

Partial situs inversus

The stomach may or may not be reversed in _____.

28

Pseudoascites

True ascites is identified within the peritoneal recesses, whereas _____ is always confined to an anterior or anterolateral aspect of the fetal abdomen.

29

Proximal

A bowel obstruction results in ______ bowel dilation that is characteristically recognized as one or more tubular structures within the fetal abdomen.

30

Diameter

The most reliable criterion for diagnosing dilated bowel is the bowel ____, not the sonographic appearance.

31

Esophageal atresia

A congenital blockage of the esophagus resulting from faulty separation of the foregut into its respiratory and digestive components is ______.

32

Absent; hydramnios

In reference to the diagnosis in question 6, the sonographer may observe the _____ stomach and _____.

33

Proximal

Blockage of the jejunum and ileal bowel segments (jejunoileal atresia or stenosis) appears as multiple cystic structures ____ to the site of atresia within the fetal abdomen.

34

Meconium ileus

A small-bowel disorder marked by the presence of thick meconium in the distal ileum is _____.

35

Anorectal atresia

______ may present as part of the VACTERL association or in caudal regression.

36

Subjective

Hyperechoic bowel is a(n) ______ impression of unusually echogenic bowel, typically seen during the second trimester.

37

Abnormal

True ascites in the fetal abdomen is always _____; it usually outlines the falciform ligament and umbilical vein.