Exam 4

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Study guide Government 2305
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1

List 5 key steps in policy making process

  • Agenda Building: process through which strategic issues gain decision
  • Policy Formulation: courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda
  • Policy Adoption: policies are adoptedby government bodies for future implementation.
  • Policy Implementation: policies are put into effect.
  • Policy Evaluation: principles and methods to examine the content, implementation or impact of a policy
2

Policy Issues:

US Domestic Policy

Economic Policy

Domestic Policy

  • administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders
  • business, education, energy, health care, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare, and personal rights and freedoms.

Economic Policy

  • actions that governments take in the economic field
  • taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market, national ownership
3

Origin of foreign policy process

(Presidents Office)

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4

State Departments Role and who are they responsible to

...

5

World regions where most immigrants to US Originate

  • Latin America
  • Asia
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Domestic Policy

  • all laws, government planning, and government actions that concern internal issues of national importance, such as poverty, crime, and envionment
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Foreign Policy

  • a nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them
8

Diplomacy

  • the process by which nations carry on political relations with one another and resolve conflicts by peaceful means
9

"Fracking"

  • "hydraulic fracking"
  • injection of high-pressure solution of water, sand and chemicals into hydrocarbon bearing rocks, releasing oil or natural gas
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Isolationism

  • the foreign policy position that a nations' interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance
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Containment

  • US diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to contain communist power within its existing boundaries
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Agenda Building

  • ongoing process by which various groups attempt to transfer their interests to be the interests of public policymakers
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Incarceration Rate

  • the number of persons held in jail or prison for every 100,000 persons in a particular population group
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Fiscal Policy

  • the federal governments use of taxation and spending policies to affect overall business activity
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Monetary Policy

  • the use of changes in the amount of money in circulation to alter credit markets, employment, and the rate of inflation
  • Loose money: expansionary, supply of credit increases and its cost falls
  • Tight money: contractionary, supply of credit falls and its cost increases
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Progressive tax

Regressive tax

Progressive Tax:

  • tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases
  • are imposed in an attempt to reduce the tax incidence of people with a lower ability to pay
  • tax rate progresses from low to high

Regressive Tax:

  • tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases
  • referring to the way the rate progresses from high to low
  • tend to reduce the tax burden of the people with a higher ability to pay, as they shift the relative burden increasingly to those with a lower ability to pay.
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Net Public Debt

  • the accumulation of all past federal government deficits
  • total amount owed by the federal government to individuals, businesses, and foreigners
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Budget Deficit

  • government expenditures that exceed receipts
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Defense Policy

  • a subset of national security policy having to do with the US armed forces
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GDP

Gross Domestic Product

  • the dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a one-year period
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Political Realism

  • philosophy that sees each nation acting principally in its own interests
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Social Security

  • established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically handicapped.
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Medicare

  • single-payer, national social insurance program
  • Medicare covers about half of the health care charges for those enrolled.
  • enrollees must then cover their remaining costs either with supplemental insurance, separate insurance, or out-of-pocket.
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Tax Loopholes

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