AP Psychology Unit 5

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1

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

2

circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle

3

REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage which vivid dreams commonly occur; muscles are relaxed

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alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

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sleep

periodic natural loss of consciousness

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hallucinations

false sense experienced, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

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delta waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

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NREM sleep

non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep

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insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

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narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrolled sleep attacks

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sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakening

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night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; occur during Stage 4

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dream

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind

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manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from it latent or hidden content)

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latent content

according to Freud, the underlaying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest)

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REM rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)

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hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feeling, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

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posthypnotic suggestion

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

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dissociation

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

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psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alters perception and moods

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tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

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withdrawal

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

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physical dependence

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

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psychological dependence

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

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addiction

compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences

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depressants

drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions (alcohol, opiates, barbiturates)

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barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the CNS system reducing anxiety but impairing member and judgment

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opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

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stimulants

drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, Ecstasy)

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amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

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methamphetamine

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

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Ecstasy (MDMA)

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. produces euphoria and social intimacy but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition

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hallucinogens

psychedelic drugs (LSD) that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the bases of sensory input

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LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also know as acid

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near-death experience

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death

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THC

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects. including mild hallucinations