APUSH Chapter 15 Flashcards


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1

A third revolution accompanied the reformation of American politics and the transformation of the American economy in the mid-nineteenth century, which contained all of the following characteristics except

a.

improved the character of ordinary Americans.

b.

made Americans more upstanding and God-fearing.

c.

focused on preserving the traditions of the founders.

d.

made Americans more literate and educated.

e.

poured their energies into religious revivals and reform movements.

C

2

Church attendance was still a regular ritual for ____ of the 23 million Americans in 1850.

a.

one-third

b.

one-half

c.

three-fourths

d.

less than one-fourth

e.

two-thirds

C

3

The Deist faith embraced all of the following except

a.

the concept of original sin.

b.

the reliance on reason rather than revolution.

c.

belief in a Supreme Being.

d.

belief in human beings' capacity for moral behavior.

e.

denial of the divinity of Christ.

A

4

Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the belief

a.

in divine revelation.

b.

in original sin.

c.

in the deity of Christ.

d.

that a Supreme Being endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior.

e.

in the imminent end of the world.

D

5

Unitarians held the following beliefs except

a.

the belief that God existed in only one person.

b.

the denial of the divinity of Christ.

c.

they stressed the essential goodness of human nature.

d.

they believed in the possibility of salvation through good works.

e.

they believed in a stern and Puritan type of God.

E

6

By 1850, organized religion in America

a.

retained the rigor of colonial religion.

b.

was ignored by three-fourths of the people.

c.

had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor.

d.

had grown more conservative.

e.

had become tied to the upper classes.

C

7

All the following are true of the Second Great Awakening except that it

a.

resulted in the conversion of countless souls.

b.

encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms.

c.

strengthened democratic denominations like the Baptists and Methodists.

d.

was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion.

e.

was not as large as the First Great Awakening.

E

8

Unitarians endorsed the concept of

a.

the deity of Christ.

b.

original sin.

c.

free will and salvation through good works.

d.

predestination.

e.

the Bible as the norm of doctrine.

C

9

Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in

a.

little increase in church membership.

b.

a strong religious influence in many areas of American life.

c.

surprisingly few humanitarian reforms.

d.

greater attention to church history and doctrine.

e.

increase in enlightenment and rational religion.

B

10

As the greatest of the revivalist preachers, Charles Grandison Finney advocated

a.

opposition to slavery.

b.

a perfect Christian kingdom on earth.

c.

opposition to alcohol.

d.

public prayer by women.

e.

All of these

E

11

The Second Great Awakening partly reshaped American religion by making it

a.

more dependent on a college-educated clergy.

b.

more reliant on women as members and social reformers.

c.

less socially and theologically diverse.

d.

more sympathetic to hierarchical churches like Catholicism.

e.

more centered on the life of the local parish.

B

12

All of the following contributed to the appeal of the Second Great Awakening to women except

a.

it offered women an active role in bringing their husbands and families back to God.

b.

it encouraged women to leave home and travel with the evangelical movement.

c.

it provided a springboard for them to turn their attention to reforming society.

d.

it preached a gospel of female spiritual worth.

e.

it allayed women's concerns about the expanding market economy.

B

13

The Second Great Awakening tended to

a.

promote religious diversity.

b.

reduce social class differences.

c.

blur regional differences.

d.

discourage church membership.

e.

weaken women's social position.

A

14

The Mormon religion originated in

a.

Utah.

b.

New England.

c.

Nauvoo, Illinois.

d.

Ireland.

e.

the Burned-Over District of New York.

E

15

The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the

a.

Roman Catholics and Episcopalians.

b.

Unitarians and Adventists.

c.

Methodists and Baptists.

d.

Congregationalists and Presbyterians.

e.

Lutherans and Mennonites.

C

16

The Second Great Awakening tended to

a.

widen the lines between classes and regions.

b.

open Episcopalian and Presbyterian churches to the poor.

c.

unite southern Baptists and southern Methodists against slavery.

d.

bring the more prosperous and conservative eastern churches into the revivalist camps.

e.

increase the influence of educated clergy.

A

17

The original prophet of the Mormon religion was

a.

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

b.

Brigham Young.

c.

Charles G. Finney.

d.

the angel Moroni.

e.

Joseph Smith.

E

18

Which one of the following is least related to the other four?

a.

Brigham Young

b.

William Miller

c.

The Book of Mormon

d.

Salt Lake City

e.

Polygamy

B

19

Besides polygamy, a characteristic of Mormonism that angered many non-Mormon Americans was their

a.

belief in visions and a special spiritual role for America.

b.

constant movement toward the western frontier.

c.

refusal to take up arms and defend themselves.

d.

emphasis on cooperative efforts, voting as a unit and openly drilling their militia.

e.

dislike of federal government control of their lives.

D

20

The religious zeal of the Second Great Awakening led to the founding of many small, denominational, liberal arts colleges, chiefly in the

a.

East.

b.

South and West.

c.

North.

d.

South exclusively.

e.

West exclusively.

B

21

Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening

a.

were academically distinguished institutions.

b.

lacked much intellectual vitality.

c.

eventually gained tax-supported status.

d.

offered a new, nontraditional curriculum.

e.

opened their doors to Catholic students.

B

22

Tax-supported public education

a.

existed mainly for the wealthy.

b.

eliminated private and parochial education in the United States.

c.

began in the South as early as 1800.

d.

provided little opportunity for the poor.

e.

was deemed essential for social stability and democracy.

E

23

The idea of free public education as an essential component of American democracy grew in the early nineteenth century with the influence of

a.

Thomas Jefferson and Horace Mann.

b.

Daniel Webster and Abraham Lincoln.

c.

Charles Finney and Henry Ward Beecher.

d.

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

e.

Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne.

A

24

In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were

a.

chiefly available to educate the children of the poor.

b.

most in evidence in the South.

c.

continuously opposed by wealthy, conservative whites.

d.

open only to tuition-paying children of the well-to-do.

e.

more academically demanding than private academies.

A

25

Despite early resistance, the main reason free public education ultimately triumphed was

a.

wealthy Americans realized that without an education, children could grow up to be a dangerous, ignorant rabble armed with the vote.

b.

wealthy Americans feared the problem of vagrancy as farm families depended less upon the labor of children.

c.

Southern slave owners abandoned their resistance to it.

d.

teaching provided paid employment for unmarried, single women.

e.

poor Americans threatened to launch a violent rebellion unless free education was made available.

A

26

Noah Webster's dictionary

a.

had little impact until the twentieth century.

b.

helped to standardize the American language.

c.

was used to educate nineteenth-century slaves.

d.

came to the United States from Britain in the 1800s.

e.

gave legitimacy to American slang.

B

27

One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the belief that

a.

they would gain political and economic power through education.

b.

women were inherently conservative and opposed to social reform.

c.

children should grow up without the influence of educated women.

d.

the Constitution prohibited women from attending colleges.

e.

too much learning would injure women's brains, ruin their health, and make them unfit for marriage.

E

28

All of the following were nineteenth century notions of gender differences except

a.

women had finely-tuned moral sensibilities.

b.

men were charged with teaching young boys to be good and productive citizens.

c.

the home was women's special sphere, the centerpiece of the cult of domesticity.

d.

men were always in danger of slipping into some savage way of life, if not for women's influence.

e.

women could be legally beaten by husbands.

B

29

Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were

a.

physical strength and mental vigor.

b.

moral sensibility and artistic refinement.

c.

political ability and organizational shrewdness.

d.

sexual appetite and physical desire.

e.

economic competitiveness and capacity for education.

B

30

Those seeking to reform women's style of dress claimed all of the following except

a.

corsets constricted women's vital organs.

b.

voluminous skirts unfairly restricted women's mobility.

c.

that bloomer-style trousers were more economical to produce.

d.

that simpler clothing styles would serve as a rejection of the artificial desires created by industrialization.

e.

that bloomer-style trousers were a more rational form of dress.

C

31

New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of

a.

prison and asylum reform.

b.

the peace movement.

c.

the temperance movement.

d.

abolitionism.

e.

women's education.

A

32

The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s

a.

was not recognized as a social problem.

b.

did not involve women.

c.

held little threat for the family because everyone drank.

d.

had little impact on the efficiency of labor.

e.

stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many.

E

33

Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because

a.

frontier life necessitated these distinctions.

b.

men were regarded as morally superior beings.

c.

it was the duty of men to teach the young how to be good, productive citizens.

d.

the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles.

e.

women believed this emphasis brought them greater respect.

D

34

Which of these is NOT associated with the rise of the modern women's rights movement in 1848?

a.

The Declaration of Sentiments

b.

The Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls

c.

The demand for the ballot for women

d.

The call to boycott traditional marriage as oppressive to women

e.

Women's increasing involvement in the antislavery movement

D

35

One sign that women in America were treated better than women in Europe was that

a.

American women could vote.

b.

the law in the United States prohibited men from beating them.

c.

rape was more severely punished in the United States.

d.

their ideas of equality were well received by American men.

e.

American women earned respect by engaging in male activities.

C

36

Neal Dow sponsored the Maine Law of 1851, which called for

a.

the abolition of capital punishment.

b.

a ban on war.

c.

a ban on polygamy.

d.

woman suffrage.

e.

a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor.

E

37

By the 1850s, the crusade for women's rights was eclipsed by

a.

the temperance movement.

b.

the "Lucy Stoners."

c.

abolitionism.

d.

prison reform advocates.

e.

evangelical revivalism.

C

38

According to John Humphrey Noyes, founder of the utopian Oneida Community, the key to happiness is

a.

acceptance of a sinful mankind.

b.

the suppression of selfishness.

c.

the abandonment of complex marriages.

d.

a rejection of Bible communism.

e.

political reform.

B

39

The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following except

a.

no private property.

b.

sharing of all material goods.

c.

belief in a vengeful deity.

d.

strictly monogamous marriages.

e.

improvement of the human race through eugenics.

D

40

The key to Oneida's financial success was

a.

its move from Vermont to New York.

b.

the establishment of Bible communism.

c.

the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware.

d.

its tax-exempt religious status.

e.

its linkage of religion to free-market capitalism.

C

41

Which of the following was not associated with the early nineteenth-century cause of women's rights?

a.

Emily Dickinson

b.

Lucy Stone

c.

Lucretia Mott

d.

Elizabeth Blackwell

e.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A

42

The Oneida colony declined due to

a.

widespread criticism of its sexual practices.

b.

a decline in animal trapping.

c.

their adoption of capitalism.

d.

the loss of Noyes's leadership.

e.

All of these

A

43

The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for

a.

its still primitive standards.

b.

having abandoned the practice of bleeding.

c.

its discovery of germs as the cause of illness.

d.

pioneer work in dentistry.

e.

its well established medical schools.

A

44

Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held ____ as one of their founding ideals.

a.

rugged individualism

b.

pacifism

c.

capitalism

d.

opposition to communism

e.

cooperative social and economic practices

E

45

Of the following, the most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at

a.

Brook Farm, Massachusetts.

b.

Oneida, New York.

c.

New Harmony, Indiana.

d.

Seneca Falls, New York.

e.

Shaker Heights, Ohio.

B

46

When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was

a.

a world leader.

b.

a nation from which other countries borrowed.

c.

most noted for its successes in medicine.

d.

more interested in practical matters.

e.

focused primarily on biology and chemistry.

D

47

America's artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century

a.

were remarkable for their creativity.

b.

were least notable in architecture.

c.

built on the achievements of the Puritans.

d.

took very little from Europe.

e.

were closely linked to democratic ideals.

V

48

Perhaps the greatest inhibiting factor for American artists in the first half of the nineteenth century was the

a.

lack of first-rate art schools.

b.

Puritan prejudice that art was a waste of time.

c.

cultural dependence on Europe.

d.

lack of adequate patronage from the wealthy or the government.

e.

popular suspicion of artistic creativity.

B

49

The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting

a.

portraits.

b.

classical frescos.

c.

still life.

d.

daguerreotypes.

e.

landscapes.

E

50

A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the

a.

wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812.

b.

writing of Charles Wilson Peale.

c.

religious writings of the Second Great Awakening.

d.

federal support for the arts.

e.

literary theories of Edgar Allan Poe.

A

51

Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through

a.

scientific observation and experiment.

b.

the senses.

c.

divine revelation.

d.

reason, logic, and critical thinking.

e.

an inner light.

E

52

All of the following influenced transcendental thought except

a.

German philosophers.

b.

Oriental religions.

c.

Catholic belief.

d.

individualism.

e.

love of nature.

C

53

"Civil Disobedience," an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was written by the transcendentalist

a.

Louisa May Alcott.

b.

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

c.

James Fenimore Cooper.

d.

Margaret Fuller.

e.

Henry David Thoreau.

E

54

The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was

a.

Edgar Allan Poe.

b.

Emily Dickinson.

c.

Walt Whitman.

d.

Herman Melville.

e.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C

55

A dark writer whose genres included poetry, horror stories, and detective fiction was

a.

Edgar Allan Poe.

b.

Herman Melville.

c.

Sherlock Holmes.

d.

Emily Dickinson.

e.

William Faulkner.

A

56

The writer who faded to obscurity in the nineteenth century but was recognized as one of America's greatest geniuses in the twentieth century was

a.

Louisa May Alcott.

b.

Henry David Thoreau.

c.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

d.

Herman Melville.

e.

Walt Whitman.

D

57

The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was

a.

William Gilmore Simms.

b.

John C. Calhoun.

c.

James Russell Lowell.

d.

Oliver Wendell Holmes.

e.

William Faulkner.

A

58

One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was

a.

James Russell Lowell.

b.

Henry David Thoreau.

c.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

d.

Edgar Allan Poe.

e.

Walt Whitman.

D

59

Virtually all the distinguished historians of early-nineteenth-century America came from

a.

the South.

b.

the middle Atlantic states.

c.

New England.

d.

the Midwest.

e.

the frontier.

C

60

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. The Mormons were advocates or practitioners of

a.

polygamy.

b.

free enterprise.

c.

theocracy.

d.

pacifism.

e.

birth control.

A, C

61

Early-nineteenth-century American educators included

a.

Horace Mann.

b.

William H. McGuffey.

c.

Noah Webster.

d.

Emma Willard.

e.

Mary Lyon.

A, B, C, D, E

62

In early-nineteenth-century America,

a.

the lines between male and female roles in society were becoming blurred.

b.

women could not vote.

c.

married women could not retain ownership of their property.

d.

women were growing less aware of themselves as individuals and as one another's sisters.

e.

women turned away from patriarchal religion.

B, C

63

Social reformers of the early nineteenth century wanted to

a.

find a practical application for their evangelical religion.

b.

reaffirm traditional values in the confusion of industrialization.

c.

do something for the welfare of early factory workers.

d.

fundamentally alter middle-class values.

e.

fulfill the ideals of American democracy.

A, B, E

64

In early-nineteenth-century America, men usually regarded women as

a.

social and political equals.

b.

having a sharply distinct economic role in society.

c.

physically and emotionally weak but morally superior to men.

d.

having their proper place in the home.

e.

sexually lustful and dangerous.

B, C, D

65

The leaders of the women's rights movement in the early nineteenth century included

a.

Lucretia Mott.

b.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

c.

Susan B. Anthony.

d.

Jane Addams.

e.

Harriet Beecher Stowe.

A, B, C

66

The Knickerbocker group of American writers included

a.

Henry David Thoreau.

b.

Louisa May Alcott.

c.

Washington Irving.

d.

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

e.

William Cullen Bryant.

C, E

67

American transcendentalist writers included

a.

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

b.

Henry David Thoreau.

c.

James Fenimore Cooper.

d.

Angelina Grimke.

e.

Margaret Fuller.

A, B, E

68

Transcendentalists were dedicated to

a.

individualism.

b.

self-reliance.

c.

respect for authority.

d.

conventional wisdom.

e.

political activism.

A, B