Lecture Exam 3

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1

relaxed quiet breathing; tidal volume of 500 mL, respiratory rate of 12-15 breathes/minute

eupnea

2

temporary cessation of breathing

apnea

3

labored, gasping breathing; shortness of breath

dyspnea

4

increased rate and depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain, or other conditions.

hyperpnea

5

increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand, leads to decrease in blood CO2.

hyperventilation

6

reduced pulmonary ventilation leading to an increase in blood CO2.

hypoventilation

7

accelerated respiration

tachypnea

8

deep, rapid breathing induced by acidosis.

Kussmaul respiration

9

dyspnea that occurs when person is lying down.

Orthopnea

10

permanent cessation of breathing

respiratory arrest

11

What Law?

"At the air-water interface, for a given temperature, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in air, thus O2 and CO2 diffuse down their own gradient until partial pressure of each gas in air equals its partial pressure in water."

Henry's Law

12

at low oxyhemoglobin levels, the body transports more CO2

The Haldane effect

13

the body releases more O2 in response to low pH.

The Bohr Effects

14

PCO2 < 37 mm Hg (CO2 deficiency), most common cause of alkalosis

Hypocapnia

15

PCO2 > 43 mm HG (excess CO2), most common cause of acidosis

Hypercapnia

16

PO2 >60 mm Hg, which will cause an increase in ventilation

Chronic Hypoxemia

17

With an increased ventilation from Chronic Hypoxemia, this can lead to... respiration driven more by low PO2 than CO2 or pH, occurs with emphysema, pneumonia, and being in high altitudes for several days.

Hypoxic Drive

18

O2 deficiency in tissue, or inability to use O2- usually a consequence of a respiratory disease. Causes Cyanosis (blueness of skin)

Hypoxia

19

low arterial PO2 usually due to inadequate pulmonary gas exchange.

Hypoxemic Hypoxia

20

inadequate circulation of blood- congestive heart failure

Ischemic Hypoxia

21

anemia> decreased blood O2 carrying capacity

Anemic Hypoxia

22

metabolic poisons; e.g., cyanide prevent tissues from using O2.

Histotoxic Hypoxia

23

safe to breathe 100% pure O2 at 1 atm for a few hours, but... breathed at 2.5 atm or greater generates free radicals & H2O2 that accumulates in cells, which overwhelm antioxidant defense mechanisms (Oxidative Stress). Damages intracellular structures and molecules> then damages nervous tissue> causing seizures, coma, or death.

Oxygen Toxicity

24

obstruction of airflow and reduced pulmonary ventilation. Major types: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Almost always associated with smoking, but also air pollution, and occupational exposure to airborne irritants.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

25

severe, persistent inflammation of lower respiratory tract; severe chronic congestion. Blood flowing through congestion lung areas is poorly oxygenated> decreases ventilation-perfusion ratio> causes hypoxemia and cyanosis.

Chronic Bronchitis

26

alveolar wall breaks down, fewer BIG alveoli> severely reduced surface area available for gas exchange; lungs also fibrotic, less elastic- OK inspiration but lungs tend to collapse with exhalation.

Emphysema

27

protein present in urine

Proteinuria (albuminuria)

28

blood present in urine

Hematuria

29

excess urination of more than 2 L/day.

Polyuria

30

too little urination; less than 500 mL/day

Oliguria

31

severely too little urination; between 0-100 mL/day (due to: kidney disease, dehydration, circulatory shock, or enlarged prostate)

Anuria

32

urine output <400 mL/day, body cannot maintain safe/low concentrations of waste in plasma, which leads to....

Azotemia

33

too much water remains in urine... (usually happens with diabetes)

Osmotic Diuresis

34

glucose in urine

Glucosuria

35

_____ hypersecretion will lead to impaired water absorption in the collecting duct.

ADH

36

any chemical that increases urine volume. (some increase GFR)

Diuretic

37

________ dilates afferent arteriole and alters effect of ADH.

Caffeine

38

______ inhibits ADH secretion.

Alcohol

39

__________ act on the nephron loop- inhibit Na, K, and Cl symport; impair counter current multiplier reducing medullary osmotic gradient, causing the collecting duct to not absorb as much water.

Loop Diuretics

40

volume of blood plasma from which a particular waste is completely removed in one minute.

Renal Clearance

41

Clinical GFR is estimated from ________ excretion.

Creatnine

42

water from aerobic metabolism and dehydration synthesis.

metabolic water

43

water from food and drink.

Preformed water

44

unavoidable expired air, cutaneous transpiration, sweat, and fecal moisture

Insensible water loss

45

plasma volume depletion

Hypovolemia

46

negative water balance

dehydration

47

normal osmolarity

isotonic

48

elevated osmolarity

hypertonic

49

positive water balance, water intoxication

Hypotonic hydration

50

reduced osmolarity

hypotonic

51

blood sodium is too low, causing cellular swelling

Hyponatremia

52

excess fluid builds up in a particular location.

fluid sequestration

53

abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces, causing swelling of tissues.

Edema

54

_________ can cause fluid sequestration; blood will pool in tissues, less blood in vessles.

hemorrhage

55

liters of fluid accumulated in pleural cavity, caused by some lung infections.

Pleural Effusion

56

Potassium levels >5mEq/L. Inactivates voltage-regulated Sodium channels, nerve and muscle cells become less excitable.

Hyperkalemia

57

Plasma Sodium concentration >145 mEq/L. (causes edema, water retention, and hypertension)

Hypernatremia

58

Plasma sodium concentration <130 mEq/L. (person loses large volumes of sweat and urine, but replace it with plain water, results in excess body water, quickly corrected by excretion of excess water).

Hyponatremia

59

Potassium levels <3.5mEq/L. (causes: excessive sweating, loss of K from GI tract, e.g. chronic vomiting, diarrhea, excessive laxative use; ALDO hypersecretion).

Hypokalemia

60

Dietary excess of chloride or administration of IV line.

Hyperchloremia

61

side effect of hyponatremia (low blood sodium), but sometime of hyperkalemia or acidosis.

Hypochloremia

62

_______ hypertension: 90% of cases; due to obesity, sedentary behavior, diet, and nicotine.

Primary Hypertension

63

_______ hypertension: 10% of cases; secondary to other diseases= kidney disease, atherosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, and Cushing's.

Secondary Hypertension

64

any mechanism that resists changes in pH. Converts strong acids or bases to weak acids or bases.

Buffer

65

a whole system that controls output of acids, bases, or CO2. (ex.: Urinary system and Respiratory system.)

Physiological Buffer

66

substances that binds H+, removing H+ from solution as H+ concentration begin to rise. OR releases H+ into solution of H+ concentrations begin to fall. Can restore pH FAST, within milliseconds.

Chemical Buffer

67

The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Charle's Law

68

Air present in pleural cavity. causes lung to collaps.

Pneumothorax

69

partial/all of lung collapse.

Atelectasis