Lab Exam 3

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1
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This is a micrograph of a...

tracheal wall

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This is a micrograph of a...

ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium in the respiratory tract

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This is a micrograph of a...

human lung tissue at 35X

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This is a micrograph of a...

human lung tissue at 250X

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This is a micrograph of a...

lymph node

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This is a micrograph of the...

thymus

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This is a micrograph of the...

spleen

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This is a micrograph of the...

palatine tonsil

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Inspiration Action: flattens (descends) during contraction; this expands thoracic cavity and compresses abdominal viscera during inspiration

Diaphragm

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Inspiration Action: elevates ribs; this expands thoracic cavity during inspiration

external intercostals

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Inspiration Action: elevates sternum.

sternocleidomastoid

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Inspiration Action: elevates ribs 1 and 2

scalenes

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Inspiration Action: elevates ribs 3-5

scalenes

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Inspiration Action: Assits in elevating ribs

internal intercostals (inter cartilaginous part)

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Expiration Action: depresses ribs; this compresses thoracic cavity during forced expiration.

Internal intercostals (interosseous part)

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Expiration Action: compresses inferior ribs and abdominal contents, helping to raise diaphragm.

rectus abdominis

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Expiration Action: compresses abdominal contents, helping to raise diaphragm.

external oblique

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Volume and Pressure are __________ related. So if volume goes up, then pressure goes down; vice versa.

inversely

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On this lung function model, what does the tubing within the rubber stopper represent?

the trachea

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What does the Y part of the tube represent?

the bronchioles

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What do the balloons represent?

lungs

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what does the rubber sheeting attached to the bell jar represent?

the diaphragm

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_____ _______ is about 500 mL; is the volume of air that enters (or leaves) the lungs during a respiratory cycle.

Tidal Volume (TV)

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______ Tidal Volume is the volume of air that enter (or leaves) the lungs during normal, quiet breathing.

Resting Tidal Volume (RTV)

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________ _______ ________ is about 1200 mL; is the volume of air in addition to the tidal volume that leaves the lungs during forced expiration.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

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With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which reduces pulmonary ventilation, the ERV is greatly _______ during physical exertion.

reduced

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______ _______ is about 4800 mL; is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible.

Vital Capacity

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What is the equation for Vital Capacity?

IRV+ERV+TV

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________ _______ ________ is about 3100 mL; is the volume of air in addition to the tidal volume that enters the lungs during forced inspiration.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

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What is the equation to find Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)?

VC-(TV+ERV)

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________ ________ is about 3600 mL; is the maximum volume of air a person can inhale following exhalation of the tidal volume.

Inspiratory Capacity (IC)

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What is the equation for Inspiratory Capacity (IC)?

TV + IRV

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_________ ________ ________ is about 2400 mL; is the volume of air that remains in the lungs following exhalation of the tidal volume.

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)

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What is the equation for Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)?

ERV+1200(RV)

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______ ________ is about 1200 mL(but can't be fully measured); is the volume of air that always remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration, it allows gas exchange and the alveoli to remain open during the respiratory cycle.

Residual Volume (RV)

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The movements of muscular walls of the ureters force urine by means of ______ ______ into the urinary bladder

peristaltic waves

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The _______ conveys urine to the outside of the body.

urethra

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Approximately 80% of the nephrons are _____ nephrons with short nephron loops.

cortical nephrons

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__________ nephrons have long nephron loops extending deeper into the renal medulla.

juxtamedullary nephrons

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This is a micrograph section of the...

renal cortex

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This is a micrograph section of the...

renal medulla

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This is a micrograph of a cross section of a....

ureter

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This is a micrograph of a segment of the human...

urinary bladder wall

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This is a cross section through the...

urethra

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The _____ _____ layer of the ureter next to the lumen consists of transitional epithelium, which allows changes in its thickness when unstretched and stretched.

mucous coat

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The ______ _____ layer of the ureter is composed of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle cells responsible for the peristaltic waves that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

muscular coat

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The outer _______ layer of the ureter, composed of connective tissue, secures the ureter in the retroperitoneal position.

adventitia

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The ______ is the largest lymphatic organ.

spleen

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The ______ duct provides drainage for the entire body except for the right upper quadrant.

thoracic duct

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the ______ ______ duct drains only the right upper quadrant into the right subclavian vein.

right lymphatic duct

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The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is called ______ respiration.

external respiration

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the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tissues is called _______ respiration.

internal respiration

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The cells utilize the oxygen and produce carbon dioxide in _______ respiration.

cellular respiration

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The right lung has ___ lobes.

3

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the left lung has ___ lobes.

2

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The _______ pleura adheres to the surface of each lung, including the fissures between the lobes.

visceral pleura

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a _______ pleura covers the internal surface of the thoracic wall and the superior surface of the diaphragm.

parietal pleura

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a narrow potential, called the _____ _____, is located between the two pleurae and contains pleural fluid secreted by these membranes.

pleural cavity

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The volume of air breathed in 1 minute.

Minute Ventilation

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What is the equation for Minute Ventilation?

TV x (breaths/minute)

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What is the equation for Total Lung Capacity (TLC)?

VC + RV

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dictates that the pressure of gases in the lungs decreases as the volume increases.

Boyle's Law

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What is the unit for Respiration Rate?

breaths/minute

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The ________ is the primary generator of impulses for the respiratory rhythm during quiet breathing.

Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)

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a quiet, more relaxed breathing is called ________.

eupnea

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The ________ _______ possesses central chemoreceptors that are sensitive to changes in the levels of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

medulla oblongata

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Low blood oxygen levels are detected by ________ ________ located in carotid bodies in the carotid arteries and aortic bodies in the aortic arch.

peripheral chemoreceptors

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If the lungs are greatly expanded during forceful breathing, ______ ______ within the bronchial tree and the visceral pleura are stimulated

stretch receptors

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The Pontine Respiratory Group (PRG) is located in the _______.

pons

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Sensory inputs from peripheral receptors send information through the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve to the ______ ________ _______.

Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)

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The Ventral Respiratory Group in the medulla oblongata send information to the _______ ______ ______ _______.

spinal cord integrating centers