PHIL ethics

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phil ethics
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1

Plato

is a proponent of justice and right conduct towards others through the due process of law. The concept of natural law means that there is a law written in each human being to do good and avoid evil and this is the basis of ethical conduct.

2

Aristotle

is a proponent of virtue ethics. We make moral decisions based on virtues. When two virtues conflict, we have a dilemma and then we must decide based on the good for all and the Golden Mean/Rule, to do unto others as we would want done to ourselves. Happiness is the real good.

3

Thomas Aquinas

proposed that there are three components to making a moral choice: consider the morality of the objective action, the intention for which it is done and the circumstances in which it is done. Of these three, the objective morality of the action itself is the most important.

4

Gandhi

believed that absolute truth and love was the basis to all morality. Action should be done in service to others and non-violence was the most basic ethical principal.

5

David Hume

proposed that the root of ethical theory is utility and agreeableness; his theory is sentiment based and he denies that there are any ethical facts. He proposes that people’s emotions determine their goals and that benevolence and justice should be how we act in order to promote society’s best interests.

6

Immanuel Kant

proposed the ethical theory of the Categorical Imperative, that one should always act in a way that they would be willing to have one’s rules of practice made into a universal principal that would apply equally to everyone.

7

John Stuart Mill

is known for the ethical theory of Utilitarianism which states that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong if they tend to produce the reverse of happiness; pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends.