401 Midterm 2

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1

Types of Overexploitation

subsistence

recreational

commercial

incidental

2

General Pattern of Commercialization of Renewable Natural Resources

resource identified, market develops

local population extracts and sells

if not sustainable, becomes rare or locally extinct

market substitution

3

Boom and Bust Cycle

Resource

Extraction

Sustainability (?)

Market Substitution

4

Commodity value

profits decrease as extraction becomes difficult

people unwilling to pay more

market substitution/supply switching

"commercial extirpation", recovery

5

Collector value

people still willing to pay more

greater price and profits

market incentive to harvest last units

extinction

6

Management of commercial exploitation

address local harvesting

supply chain and transportation

end user demand

7

Exotic species

A species living outside its native range.

8

Introduced species

An exotic species that has been released to the wild.

9

Established species

An introduced species that maintains its local populations. Self-perpetuating populations.

10

Invasive species

An established species with special ecological characteristics that permit it to expand its range into new areas

11

Rule of 10's

For every 100 species introduced, 10 will be established

for every 10 established, 1 will become invasive.

12

Introduction

by accident

intentional (4)

13

How do invasive exotic species affect native species? (3)

facilitate other non-native species

indirect

direct

14

Traits of a Successful Invader

weedy

large group

invade islands

15

why weedy species are successful invaders

r selected, high reproductive rate

often associated with humans

early successional

generalists

16

why species that come in large groups are successful invaders

more genetic diversity

less subject to stochastity

lag time (?)

17

why species that invade islands are more successful

island species are naive

don't have large predators

are endemic

few mammals (and few large ones)

18

Managing exotic species

Preventative (2)

Elimination/Restriction (2)

19

Exotic Diseases

Random (esp small populations)

Habitat destruction can make more susceptible (2)

Resistance

20

Demes have

carrying capacity

size

Probability of extinction

21

Four types of metapopulations

Classical (Levin's)

Patchy Population

Core-Satellite

Stepping Stone

22

Classical (Levin's) Metapopulation

identical patches

migration between all

some may be empty

n

E

M

23

Patchy Population-Cat tails

all different in size, population, shape

migration between all, high migration rate

quickly repopulated-rescue effect

24

Core-Satellite metapopulation

core has p(E)=O

satellites receive dispersers from core but no reverse migration

extirpation in satellites but not core

persistence of core population is what maintains entire network