Mader's Understanding Human Anatomy & Physiology: chapter 11 Flashcards


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1

Functions of blood

transport, defense, regulation

2

transport

Oxygen to tissues
Carbon dioxide and other wastes away from tissues
Hormones and other chemicals

3

defense

Defends body against pathogens (disease-causing agents)
Removes cancerous cells, dead and dying cells
Blood clotting (prevents blood loss)

4

regulation

Body temperature
Picks up heat in active tissues and distributes it throughout the body
Water-salt balance
Osmotic pressure of blood maintains fluid balance in body tissues
Body pH
Blood contains buffers

5

Plasma proteins

help maintain homeostasis in various ways

6

Albumins

Contribute to osmotic pressure

7

Globulins

Alpha and beta – produced by the liver; transport metals and vitamins
Bind to lipids, forming lipoproteins

8

Gamma

type of antibodies

9

Fibrinogen and prothrombin

function in blood clotting

10

Hematopoiesis

formation of formed elements

11

Multipotent stem cells

red bone marrow cells that become other blood cells
Replicate by mitosis
Each daughter cell then differentiates into myeloid stem cells or lymphoid stem cells

12

Erythrocytes Red blood cells

Small, biconcave disks; anucleate
Very numerous; 4 to 6 million per mm3 of whole blood
Function to transport oxygen

13

Oxyhemoglobin

is formed when oxygen binds with hemoglobin – bright red

14

deoxyhemoglobin

Hemoglobin that is not combined with oxygen – dark maroon

15

Erythropoietin

stimulates production and maturation of RBCs

16

Anemia

Blood has reduced oxygen-carrying capacity due to decreased hemoglobin or decreased number of red blood cells

17

Hemolytic

increased rate of RBC destruction

18

Sickle-cell

genetic; abnormal hemoglobin

19

Iron deficiency

low iron intake

20

Pernicious

lack of vitamin B12

21

Aplastic

bone marrow damage

22

Hemorrhagic

blood loss

23

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)

Usually larger than RBCs, nucleated and translucent unless stained
Not as numerous as RBC’s; about 5,000-11,000 per mm3

24

Types of white blood cells

  • Granular leukocytes
  • Neutrophils

Most abundant of the WBCs
First WBC to respond to an infection
Engulf pathogens during phagocytosis

25

Eosinophils

Increase in number during parasitic worm infections
Lessen an allergic reaction during an allergic attack

26

Basophils

Release histamines – dilates blood vessels and causes contraction of smooth muscle
Release heparin – prevents clotting and promotes blood flow

27

Natural killer cells (NK cells)

destroy mutated cells

28
  • Agranular leukocytes
  • Lymphocytes

Specific immunity against particular pathogens and their toxins
Recognize and destroy cancer cells

29

B lymphocytes

produce antibodies that will bind to antigens
Antigens are usually cell surface proteins on foreign cells; they evoke an immune response
Antibodies are proteins that neutralize antigens

30

T lymphocytes

attack and destroy any cell with a foreign antigen

31

Monocytes

Largest of the WBCs
Differentiate into macrophages that phagocytize pathogens, old cells, and cellular debris
Stimulate other WBCs to defend the body

32

Leukopenia

low WBC count

33

Leukocytosis

high WBC count

34

Differential white blood cell count

count of individual types of white blood cells

35

Mononucleosis

viral infection; large number of abnormal lymphocytes

36

Leukemia

cancer; uncontrolled production of white blood cells
E.g., acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

37

Platelets (Thrombocytes)

Not cellular; they are fragments of megakaryocytes
150,000-300,000 per mm3 of blood
Lifespan about 10 days

38

Vascular spasm

constriction of a broken blood vessel; platelets also release serotonin

39

Platelet plug formation

In a broken blood vessel, collagen fibers are exposed
Platelets adhere to collagen and aggregation of platelets results in a platelet plug

40

Coagulation

blood clotting
Requires many protein clotting factors
Two mechanisms for activation of clotting

41

Intrinsic mechanism

clotting factors are intrinsic to the blood
Slower than extrinsic mechanism
Initiated when exposed to broken collagen in broken blood vessel wall

42

Two mechanisms for activation of clotting

Intrinsic mechanism – clotting factors are intrinsic to the blood

Extrinsic mechanism – clotting factors are extrinsic to the blood (from damaged tissue)

43

tissue thromboplastin

Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are activated simultaneously; their common endpoint is the production of prothrombin activator

44

Embolus

dislodged blood clot

45

Thrombocytopenia

low platelet count

46

Hemophilia

inherited clotting disorders caused by deficiencies of clotting factors

47

Thrombus

stationary blood clot

48

Thromboembolism

dislodged clot blocks a blood vessel

49

Pulmonary thromboembolism

in lungs

50

Cerebrovascular accident or stroke

in brain

51

Agglutination

clumping of red blood cells