_____________are related to differences in the width and stiffness of the basilar membrane and sound waves of various frequencies that cause specific regions of the basilar membrane to vibrate more intensely than others.
Differences in pitch
What type of sounds causes the basilar membrane to vibrate near the base of the cochlea?
High-frequency or high-pitched sounds
What type of sounds cause the basilar membrane to vibrate near the apex of the cochlea?
Low- frequency or Low pitched sounds
The cell bodies of the auditory sensory neurons are located in the _____________.
Nerve impulses pass along the axons of the spiral ganglia which form the cochlear branch of the_____________cranial nerve.
cochlear (VIII) nerve
The nerve impulses follow CN VIII en route to the medulla, pons, midbrain, and thalamus. What area does it finally travel to?
The primary auditory area in the temporal lobe.
Slight differences in the timing of nerve impulses arriving from two ears at the superior olivary nuclei in the pons allow us to locate the source of a_____________.
Equilibrium is another function of the inner ear. It is controlled by the:
What are the parts of the vestibular apparatus ?
saccule, utricle of the vestibule, and the 3 semicircular ducts
The receptors for static equilibrium are small thickened regions in the utricle and saccule called __________.
Inside the maculae are the hair cells; which are refered to as ____________.
The receptor cells
When you blow a kiss, you touch your fingers to your lips. Which slowly-adapting tactile receptors are activated in both of these tissues?
Where are Proprioceptors found?
Muscle, tendons, and joints.
Which tract contains axons that convey impulses for precise, voluntary movements of the eyes, tongue, and neck, plus chewing, facial expression, and speech?
The perception of ____________(acute, well localized) occurs rapidly because the nerve impulses propagate along medium-diameter, myelinated A fibers.
The graded potentials produced by receptors that serve the senses of touch, pressure, stretching, vibration, pain, proprioception, and smell are called;
Monitoring movement intention
Monitoring actual movement
Comparing intent with actual performance
Sending out corrective signals are all functions of what?
All aspects of cerebellar function
An increase in the curvature of the lens for near vision is called ____________. Stimulation of the ciliary muscles by CN III makes the lens more round, which is needed for near vision.
_____________ is the minimum distance from the eye that an object can be clearly focused with maximum accommodation.
- It’s about 4 inches in young adults
- The distance increaseswith age due to a loss of elasticity in the lens: presbyopia
The near point of vision
A circular venous sinus located at the junction of the sclera and the cornea through which aqueous humor drains from the anterior chamber of the eyeball into the blood. Also called the canal of Schlemm (SHLEM).
Scleral venous sinus
The inferior and smaller of the two chambers in the membranous labyrinth inside the vestibule of the internal ear containing a receptor organ for static equilibrium.
The membranous semicircular canals filled with endolymph and floating in the perilymph of the bony semicircular canals; they contain cristae that are concerned with dynamic equilibrium.
Loss of the sense of taste.
A series of cavities within the petrous portion of the temporal bone forming the vestibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals of the inner ear.
The superior spiral-shaped channel of the bony cochlea, filled with perilymph.
The ________ is in the exact center of the posterior portion of the retina and in its center is a small depression called the fovea centralis.
There are no rods or nerve cells in the fovea, only a high concentration of cones; this gives us the sharp central vision necessary in any activity where detail is of primary importance.
The retina can be viewed through the pupil using an ___________,
inspection of the retinal blood
vessels for any pathological changes
(ex. diabetes, hypertension)
The retina lines the posterior 3/4 of the eyeball, it consists
Pigmented layer – contains melanin, allows light to be absorbed rather than scattered.
inner synaptic layer, and ganglion cell layer.
The retina is made up of 2 layers called:
Neural Layer & Pigmented Layer
Which layer consists of photoreceptors, outer synaptic layer, bipolar cells,inner synaptic layer, and ganglion cell layer?
The Neural Layer
contains melanin,allows light to be absorbed rather than scattered.
The pigmented layer
___________contributes to maintain proper intraocular pressure as it holds the retina against the choroid.
The vitreous body (humor)
The vitreous humor, however, is only formed during ____________ and is not replaced.
As we age, __________ of the vitreous body may lead to a detachment of the retina from the choroid
A __________is considered a medical emergency and needs immediate repair before vision loss becomes permanent.
With nearsightedness (myopia), only close objects can be seen clearly: Light rays coming in from distant objects are focused in _______of the retina and appear blurry.
Myopia is corrected with what type of lens?
concave (negative lens)
With farsightedness (hyperopia), only distant objects canbe seen clearly: Light rays coming in from nearer objects are focused ________the retina and appear blurry.
Hyperopia is corrected with what type of lens?
Convex (positive lens)
The characteristic in which both eyes focus on the same set of objects—it allows us to see the 3-dimensional nature of objects.
A canal that transports the lacrimal secretion (tears) from the nasolacrimal sac into the nose.
CN III supplies 4 of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles plus the levator
muscle that the
The watery fluid, similar in composition to cerebrospinal fluid, that fills the anterior cavity of the eye.
A sensation of spinning or movement in which the world seems to revolve or the person seems to revolve in space, often associated with nausea and, in some cases, vomiting. It may be caused by arthritis of the neck or an infection of the vestibular apparatus.
A small opening between the middle and internal ear, directly inferior to the oval window, covered by the secondary tympanic membrane.
Turning outward of the eyes.
The organ of hearing, consisting of supporting cells and hair cells that rest on the basilar membrane and extend into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. Also called the organ of Corti
A protective mucous membrane. Palpebral conjunctiva line the eyelids, bulbar conjunctiva covers the white part of the eye (sclera).
Episodes of vertigo (the room spinning) and ringing in the ears (tinnitus) can be a mild annoyance, or a chronic, disabling disability
________(commonly called “swimmer’s ear”) is a dermatitis of the epithelium of the outer ear (infectious and noninfectious). The chlorine, water, and ear plugs associated with swimming can result in irritated, inflamed tissues of the outer ear and ear canal
A disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance, and is thought to be due to increased pressure in the cochlea and semicircular canals (extra endolymph)
One of the three parts of the vascular tunic of the eyeball, the others being the choroid and the iris
__________ is an inflammation of the ear drum
Infections of the middle ear cavity (otitis media) are common in children between 6 mo. – 5 yrs. old, and usually presents with a crying child and a TM (viewed through an otoscope), that looks red and bulging
_________________results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage to the retina. It is a major cause of visual impairment in older adults (>50 years) It can become impossible to recognize faces, yet enough peripheral vision remains to allow other activities of daily life
Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Three bony channels (anterior, posterior, lateral), filled with perilymph, in which lie the membranous semicircular canals filled with endolymph. They contain receptors for equilibrium.
A serious form of conjunctivitis and the greatest single cause of blindness in the world. It is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The disease produces an excessive growth of subconjunctival tissue and invasion of blood vessels into the cornea, which progresses until the entire cornea is opaque.
A modified sudoriferous (sweat) gland in the external auditory meatus that secretes cerumen (ear wax).
Constriction of pupil
_________ is an inflammation of the conjunctiva and is s caused most frequently by viral infections and allergy. It can also result from bacterial infections (very contagious) and irritants.
Conjunctivitis (pink eye)
The inferior spiral-shaped channel of the bony cochlea, filled with perilymph.
__________ is a loss of transparency in the lens of the eye due to
changes in the structure of lens proteins.
Cataracts are caused by injury, medications, and diseases like diabetes. They are common in old age
____________and vestibular imbalance also occurs more frequently in the elderly.
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
By about age 60, approximately 25% of individuals experience a noticeable hearing loss which is an age-associated loss is called ________.
___________are not affected by aging until around age 50 when the gradual loss of receptors and the slower rate of regeneration have an affec
Smell and taste
The lens begins to lose ________and has difficulty focusing on close objects (presbyopia). This begins around age 40.
Muscles of the _______ weaken and react more slowly to light and dark causing elderly people to have difficulty adjusting to changes in lighting.