Chapter 7

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1

Experimental Research Strategy

to establish the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between 2 variables.

2

When/ in

  • participants are being manipulated
  • manipulations are subtle
  • simulations
  • use of placebo Controls

manipulation checks are important in four situations

3

Experimental research strategy

establishes the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables while manipulating one variable and keeping all the other ones controlled

4

(True) experiment

attempts to show that changes in one variable are directly responsible for changes in a second variable

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independent variable

variable being manipulated by the researcher

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treatment condition

situation or environment characterized by one specific value of the manipulated variable. experiments contain 2 or more that differ according to the values of the manipulated variables

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levels

the different values of the independent variable selected to create and define the treatment conditions

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dependent variable

the variable that is observed for changes to assess the effects of manipulating the independent variable

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extraneous variables

variables in the study other than the independent and dependent variables

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third-variable problems

although a study may establish that two variables are related, it does not necessarily mean that there is a direct relationship between the two variables. it's possible that an unidentified third variable is controlling the two variables.

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directionality problem

the existence of a relationship does not always explain the direction of the relationship

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manipulation

accomplished by first deciding which specific values of the independent variable you would like to examine. then create a series of treatment conditions corresponding to those specific values

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confounding variables

it's a third variable that is allowed to change systematically along with the other two variables being studied.

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Holding Constant

variables are held constant like environment, age, gender, and researcher

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Matching

matching one variable across different treatment groups

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randomization

is the use of a random process to help avoid a systematic relationship between two variables

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random assignment

use of a random process to assign participants to treatment conditions

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experimental group

refers to the treatment conditions in an experiment

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control group

refers to the no-treatment condition in an experiment

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no-treatment control group

condition in which the participants do not receive the treatment being evaluated

21

placebo effect

refers to a response by a participant to an inert medication that has no real effect on the body

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placebo control group

is a condition in which participants receive a placebo instead of the actual treatment

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Manipulation check

additional measures to assess how the participants perceived and interpreted the manipulation and/or to assess the direct effect of the manipulation

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simulation

the creation of conditions within an experiment that simulate or closely duplicate the natural environment in which the behaviors being examined would normally occur

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Mundane realism

refers to the superficial, usually physical, characteristics of the simulation, which probably have little positive effect on external validity

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Experimental Realism

concerns the physiological aspects of the simulation; the extent to which the participants become immersed in the simulation and behave normally, unmindful of the fact they are involved in an experiment

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field studies

is research conducted in a place that the participant or subject perceives as a natural environment