Chapter 8 Joints
What are the 3 structural classifications of joints?
What are the 3 functional classifications of joints?
What are synarthrosis joints?
What are amphiarthrosis joints?
slightly movable joints
What are diarthrosis joints?
freely movably joints
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
What are suture joints?
A type of fibrous joint only found in the skull
What are syndesmoses joints?
fibrous bones connected by ligaments
What are gomphosis joints?
fibrous peg-in-socket teeth joints
What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
What are synchondroses joints?
cartilaginous joints, bones united by hyaline cartilage
What are symphyses joints?
cartilaginous joints, bones united by fibrocartilage
What type of cartilage is found in synovial joints that absorbs compression and keeps bones ends from being crushed?
What are the 2 layers that make up the articular capsule of synovial joints?
fibrous layer for strength
synovial membrane layer that creates synovial fluid for lubrication
What is the elongated bursa that wraps around the tendon to protect it from frictions?
What reinforces and strengthen ligaments in synovial joints?
What occupies the free space within a joint capsule, providing slippery, weight-bearing, film that reduces friction between cartilages?
What are flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid located where ligaments, muscles, tendons, skin, and bone rub together?
What 3 main factors influence joint stability?
1. shape of articular surface
2. number and position of ligaments
3. muscle tone
What are ligaments?
a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint
In the movement of synovial joints, what part of the muscle is attached to the immovable bone?
In the movement of synovial joints, what part of the muscle is attached to the movable bone?
What are the 4 rages of motion that describe joint movements?
What are the 2 types of joints movements?
What motion is defined as the increase or decrease of and angle between 2 bones?
What are the 6 types of synovial joints?
6. ball and socket
What is the larges, most complex joint of the body?
What are the 3 joints that make up the knee?
1. femoropatellar joints
2. lateral tibiofemoral joint
3. medial tibiofemoral joint
What ligament prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur and provide rotation?
anterior cruciate ligament
What ligaments control the sideways motion of your knee and brace it from unusual movement?
the medial and lateral collateral ligaments
What ligament prevents the tibia from sliding out behind the femur and provide rotation?
posterior cuciate ligament
What type of joint is the glenohumeral joint?
shoulder joint, ball and socket
What is the most freely moving joint in the body?
What is defined as a piece of fibrocartilage (rubbery tissue) attached to the rim of the shoulder socket that helps keep the ball of the joint in place?
What are the 4 rotator cuff tendons that encircle the shoulder joint (SITS)?
Where does the head of the femur articulate?
What is another name for the ligament of the head of the femur?
What are the reinforcing ligaments of the hip joint (PIIL)?
What 2 types of movement takes place in the temporomandibular joint?
1. hinge - depressions and elevation of mandible
2. gliding - side to side grinding of teeth
What injury takes place when reinforcing ligaments stretch or tear?
What is another name for a joint dislocation?
What is a subluxation?
a partial dislocation of a joint
What is the most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.?
What causes an acute form of arthritis?
What are chronic forms of arthritis?
What is a chronic, inflammatory, auto immune disease that causes joint pain, muscle weakness, anemia, and cardiovascular problems?
What disease is classified by deposits of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissue?