Myers' Psychology for AP*: AP Psychology Unit 4 Flashcards


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1

sensation

process which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

2

perception

process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

3

bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works ip to the brain's integration of sensory information

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top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

5

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

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inattention blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

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change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

8

psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them

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absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

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signal detection theory

predicts when we will detect weak signals; measured as our ratio to "hits" to "false alarms"

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subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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priming

the activation often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

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difference threshold

"noticeable difference" is the minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time

14

Weber's Law

the principal that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a constant amount)

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sensory adaptation

our demising sensitivity to an unchain stimulus

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pupil

the adjustable opening in the center fo the eye through which light enters

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iris

ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

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lens

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

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retina

the light sensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

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accommodation

the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

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rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white and grey; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

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cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. Gives fine detail and give rise to color sensations

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optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, no receptor cells are located there

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fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

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feature detector

ability to respond to a scene's specific feature

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parallel processing

processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously

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Young-Helmholtz (three color) theory

the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors

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opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision

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audition

the sense or act of hearing

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frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

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pitch

a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency

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middle ear

the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

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cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

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inner ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

36

place theory

in hearing the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

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frequency theory

in hearing, the theory that the rates of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

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conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts soul waves to the cochlea

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sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness

40

cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

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conduction hearing loss

problems with the technical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

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sensorineural hearing loss

damage to the cochlea's hair cell receptor or their associated nerves

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kinesthesis

your sense of the position and movement of your body part

44

vestibular sense

the sense of body movement and position including the sense of balance

45

gate-control theory

the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain

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sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another

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gestalt

an organized whole. these psychologist emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

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figure-ground

the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings

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grouping

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

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proximity

groups of nearby figures

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similarity

group similar figures together

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continuity

perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

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connectedness

we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

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closure

we fill in gaps to create a complete whole object

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depth perception

seeing object in three dimension, enables us to estimate their distance from us

56

visual cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

57

binocular cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes

58

retinal disparity

provides on important binocular cue to the relative distance of different objects

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monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective available to either eye alone

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phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blind on and off in quick succession

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perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change

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color constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths selected by the object

63

perceptual adaptation

in vision, the ability to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

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perceptual set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

65

extrasensory perception (ESP)

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

66

parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis