Physiology Exam 8

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Skeletal Myofilaments
updated 4 years ago by brown_6011
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1

Z-Line / Disc

Thin connections

2

Sarcomere

Z to Z functional unit

3

I-band (light band)

ONLY THIN filament

4

A-Band (dark band)

Length of thick filament

5

M Line

Midpoint between Z's

6

H Zone

ONLY THICK filament

7

Actin

Myosin binding site

Thin myofilament

Double helix chain

8

Troponin

Ca2+ binding site

9

Tropomyosin

Lays over myosin sites on actin

10

Myosin

Actin and ATP binding site

Golf club - like heads going in opposite directions on both ends

Thick myofilament (works alone)

Cross-Bridge (flexible; causes movement)

11

Skeletal Muscle Junction

site where the motor neuron synapses on the plasma membrane

site where acetylcholine is broken down after nerve cell impulses stop, closing the calcium channels in the transverse tubules.

12

Skeletal Muscle Twitch

Pattern of tension due to a single action potential

13

Tension

force from cross-bridge cycling

14

Latent Period

time between stimulation and tension development

-period in which binding is happening

15

Contraction Period

Muscular contraction develops tension

16

Relaxation Period

Time in which Tension is removed from the muscle

-calcium moving into SR takes time, the channels close slowly.

17

What do we use ATP for in cross-bridge cycling (CBC)?

Unbinding; needed to unbind myosin from actin

Energizing the cross bridge

18

What do we use ATP for during Relaxation?

ATPase pumps move the calcium back into our sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

For every one calcium being moved you need one ATP.

19

What four sources do we get ATP from?

Creatine Phosphate

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation

20

Creatine Phosphate

Substrate phosphorylation break apart creatine and phosphate.

Phosphate pairs with ADP, creating ONE ATP.

One step process; initial source

Increased cell osmolarity

Anaerobic

21

Anaerobic

Requires an absence of oxygen

22

Glycolysis

1 glucose = 2 ATP

glucose comes from blood stream and glycogen stores in cell

Aerobic when using blood stream

Anaerobic when using glycogen; load up on carbs so plenty of sugars to make ATP from and don't have to use oxygen.

23

Krebs Cycle

1 glucose = 2 ATP

Aerobic only (dependent on O2)

1st source: Glycolysis; producing pyruvate

other sources: fatty acids and amino acids

24

Oxidative Phosphorylation

28-34 ATPs

Source Krebs cycle (glycolysis)

Happens when able to STAY AEROBIC; therefore must avoid intense or prolonged activity.

25

Contraction

generation of tension

opposed by load (your body + outside component)

26

Isometric Contraction

Muscle held at same length (ex/holding object in front of you)

independent of the load

tension < load

Cross-bridge cycling is happening but does not have to shorten the muscle

happens first while building tension (latent stage)

27

Eccentric Contraction

Muscle lengthens

dependent on the load

tension > load but not enough to lift

28

Isotonic contraction

Length of the muscle changes.

No change in tension after movement begins, to assure smooth controlled movement

T>L muscle shortens

29

Tetanus

Maintained contraction

30

Unfused Tetanus

Muscle is able to partially relax between stimulus

31

Fused Tetanus

Muscle does not relax at all between stimulus

Calcium V-gated channels are remaining open

32

Increase Load =

Increased Latency

Decreased Velocity

Decreased Response

33

Atrophy

Degeneration of cells; wasting away

Usually happens when muscles are not being used or caused by disease

34

Hypertrophy

Increase in volume of an organ tissue

Usually due to exercise; building muscle

aerobic

35

Proprioception

ability to sense stimuli arising within the body regarding position, motion and equilibrium

36

Smooth Muscle Locations

Digestive tract

Vessels

Urogenital glands

Glands

37

Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs

Types of proprioceptors that provide input regarding muscle length and tension