Putting your loop in the flame and decontaminating the table top is an example of what?
This is an example of?
The study of life to small to see without a microscope is called?
What are the six type of organisms studied in microbiology?
bacteria, archae, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses
What are the fields associated with bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, parasites, and viruses in that order?
bacteriology, phycology, mycology, protozoology, parasitology, and virology
What are the 3 domains and which one are we in?
Bacteria, archae, eukarya. Plants and animals are in eukarya.
What does eukaryote mean literally? Prokaryote?
eu=true, pro=before, karyote=nucleus
What are the five kingdoms?
animals, plants, protists, fungi, monera
The kingdom plants includes?
plants and multicellular algae
The kingdom protists includes?
protozoa and unicellular algae
The kingdom monera includes?
eubacteria and archaeobacteria
(true bacteria and ancient bacteria)
What are the five I's?
innoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, identification
What does TSA stand for?
tryptic soy agar
How many cells in our bodies are bacteria?
Human cells are much ____ than bacteria?
(larger or smaller)
How many species of bacteria live in the human eye?
How many species of bacteria live in the mouth?
How many species of bacteria live in the intestines?
400 (3 lb. of bacteria)
How many species of bacteria live on men's hands? Women's hands?
What is a general purpose medium?
one in which all or most species can grow
What is a selective medium?
one in which only one species grows
What is a general purpose nondifferential medium?
one where all species have a similar appearance
What is a differential medium?
one where all 3 species grow, but may show different reactions
What are the steps of Gram staining?
1.Make a slide by putting 1 drop of water, put bacteria into water, let dry, then run through flame 4 or 5 times.
2.Crystal violet for 20 sec.
3.Wash for 2 sec.
4.Gram's iodine for 1 min.
5.Decolorize with alcohol for 10-20 sec.
6.Wash for 2 sec.
7.Safranin for 1 min.
8.Wash for 2 sec.
Gram negative is what color? Gram positive?
Round, spherical shaped bacteria are categorized into what?
Long cylindrical shaped bacteria are categorized into what?
What is the genus and species of the bacteria that caused a man's towels to turn red and death in termites?
Serratia marcescens (UNDERLINE, BOLD, OR ITALICIZE THIS!!!)
Name the bacteria that is gram negative rods, grows in cetrimide agar, and has a distinct yellow or green/blue color that glows under a blacklight. It also makes blue pus in infected burn victims.
Who was responsible for Gram staining?
Hans Christian Gram
What part of the body did Gram stain bacteria in when he developed Gram staining?
lungs, he was looking for bacteria that caused pneumonia and found Streptococcus pneumonia
Should one use new cells or old cells for Gram staining?
new, old cells lose the ability to hold stain because their cell walls have weakened
You are doing a Gram stain and accidentally over heat the cells in the flame. Do you think this could mess up your results?
Yes, excessive heating disrupts the cell walls.
What are the 4 basic steps of Gram staining?
If your bacteria can swim it is called what?
When looking for spores, should you use old or new cultures?
Old, most bacteria that produce spores produce them after a given time instead of right at the beginning.
Where can an endospore be located in a bacteria cell?
terminal, subterminal, central
The most resistant form of life is a what?
Anaerobic bacteria grows how?
Aerobic bacteria grows how?
Facultative bacteria grows how?
with or without oxygen
What is the reference book used to look up bacteria called?
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
What are the 4 divisions of bacteria?
-Gracilicutes (gram negative mucopeptide (peptidoglycan) wall)
-Firmicutes (gram positive " " wall)
-Tenericutes (lack a cell wall)
-Mendosicutes (have a non mucopeptide wall)
What is a strain?
identical descendants of a single bacterial cell
Do strains result from mutations?
most likely, yes
What is the ATCC?
they keep type species of strains
What are the different types of strains?
biotypes, serotypes, pahtotypes, phagotypes, morphotypes
H antigens are for? O antigens? K antigens?
flagella, cell wall, capsule
What are biotypes?
bacteria strains that differ in some special biochemical or physiological property
What are serotypes?
bacteria strains that differ based on antigens for the cell body, flagella, or capsule
What are pathotypes?
bacteria strains that differ in whether they are dangerous to life
(ex. pathogenic E. coli)
What are morphotypes?
Bacteria that are the same species but different strains that look different on a medium.
What are phagetypes?
Bacteria strains that differ in their resistance to viruses.
(ex. phagetype 80/81/15/3)
What type of medium is blood agar?
What does bacteriophage mean?
What is a bacteriophage?
a virus that attacks SPECIFIC bacteria
A _____ attaches to a cell wall and injects its DNA, where it replicates itself. When there are too many of these in the cell, it will burst open the cell with several copies.
What are the clear spots in the bacteria lawn?
How many versions of E. coli O antigens are there?
How many versions of the E. coli H antigens are there?
What is O157:H7?
E. coli cell wall version 157 and flagella version 7. It is harmful and causes hemorrhage of intestines.
What does ATCC stand for?
American Type Culture Corporation
What test is this an example of?
Would this bacteria test positive for spores?