Normal flora may cause opportunistic infections when:
(a) They are continuously nourished by the body.
(b) They microorganism gains access to an unusual body site.
(c) They are continuously present.
(d) They colonize any body surface.
Transposal of virulence and attenuation are two techniques that are useful in the production of:
(c) Pathogenic organisms
(d) Virulent organisms
Endotoxins are associated with Gram-negative bacteria and are part of their cell _____ and are released when the cell _____/____, while exotoxins are produced and released by Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria and are called _____ if they affect the nervous system and _____ if they affect the digestive system.
(a) Cycle; shrivels/enlarges; hemolysins; leukocidins
(b) Membrane; shrivels/enlarges; leukocidins; hemolysins
(c) Outer membrane divides/dies; neurotoxins; enterotoxins
(d) Flagella; divides/dies; enterotoxins; neurotoxins
(e) Cycle divides/dies; hemolysins; neurotoxins
A patient who has an adverse reaction to a prescribed antibiotic is suffering from ______ disease.
Which of the following diseases can be directly caused by microorganisms?
(a) Inherited disease
(b) Congenital disease
(c) Neoplastic disease
(d) b and c
(e) a and b
An iatrogenic disease in a patient caused by staphylococcus aureus- contaminated surgical instruments would be known as a ______
(a) Zoonotic invasion
(b) Transient contamination
(c) Invasive malignancy
(d) Subclinical infection
(e) Nosocomial infection
All of the following are virulence factors EXCEPT:
(a) Adhesive pili
(b) Enzymes that aid in evasion of host defenses
(c) Enzymes that aid in direct protection of microbe from host defenses
Which of the following is not true about the virulence factor coagulase?
(a) It keeps microorganisms from spreading
(b) It increases the likelihood of exposure to host immune defenses
(c) It accelerates coagulation or clotting of host blood
(d) Streptokinase can counteract the effects of coagulase
(e) All of the above are true
An example of a latent disease is:
(a) Chicken pox/shingles
(d) Gum disease
The presence of a few, non-multiplying, bacteria in the blood is termed:
(e) Secondary infection
Which of the following infectious disease stages is mismatched?
(a) Convalescent period-tissue damage is repaired and patient strength returns.
(b) Decline phase-host defences are overwhelmed by pathogen.
(c) Incubation period-time between infection and onset of signs and symptoms
(d) Invasive phase-individual experiences typical signs and symptoms of disease.
(e) Prodromal phase-pathogens begin tissue invasion; marked by nonspecific symptoms.
Viral damages to cells produce observable changes called the ____ effect. Viral infections that lead to the release of viral progeny are known as _____ infections, while those resulting in no infectious progeny are known as ____ infections.
(a) Prodromal; reproductive; chronic
(b) Productive; prodromal; cytopathic
(c) Abortive; cytopathic; productive
(d) Cytopathic; productive; abortive
(e) Cytopathic; prodromal; productive
A positive antibody test for HIV would be a ______ of disease.
Which of the following is not a condition of Koch's postulates?
(a) Isolate the causative agent of a disease
(b) Cultivate the microbe in the lab
(c) Inoculate a test animal to observe the disease
(d) Grow the organism in pure culture
(e) Produce a vaccine
A laboratory bench with bacteria spilled on it could be correctly referred to as:
A _____ is an observable effect of a disease, while a _____ is an effect of a disease felt by the infected person. A ______ is a group of signs and symptoms that occur together:
(a) Syndrome; sign; symptom
(b) Syndrome; symptom; sign
(c) Sign; symptom; syndrome
(d) Symptom; sign; syndrome
(e) Sign; syndrome; symptom
Which of the following is mismatched?
(a) Abortive infection-infection leads to abortion in pregnant individuals
(b) Inapparent infection-too few organisms present to produce typical signs and symptoms
(c) Local infection-confined to a specific area of the body
(d) Mixed infection-more than one type of organism is responsible for disease process
(e) Productive infection-virus is produced from an infected host cell
The presence of Staphylococcus epidermis on healthy skin helps to prevent pathogenic bacteria from colonizing and causing disease. This is an example of:
(e) Microbial antagonism
Botulinum toxin is an example of a(n):
Infection with rapid development of symptoms and recovery within a few weeks is classified as:
(b) Acute disease
(c) Subacute disease
(d) Systemic disease
(e) Focal infection