Psych 340 midterm

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Social Psychology
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1

Schools of thought

- Psychoanalytic

- Humanistic

- Behaviorism

- Cognitive

2

Social vs personality psychology

Social psychology: experiments, individual behavior in social context

Personality: theorists and theories, individual differences

3

Comparison to sociology

Sociology is observation based while social psychologists conduct new research

4

Deception

Participants are misinformed about the study's methods and purposes to avoid loss of an authentic response

5

Debriefing

Postexperimental explanation of a study that discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understandings and feeligs

6

Cover story

Part of deception, misleading explanation of study's purpose

7

Mundane realism

Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations

8

Experimental realism

Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants

9

Demand characteristics

Cues in an experiment that tel the participant what behavior is expected

10

Compliance

Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing

11

Obedience

Acting in accord with a direct order or command

12

Conformity

Small group has a bigger effect

13

Acceptance

Conformity that involves both acting a believing in accord with social pressure

14

Sherif

- Norm formation

- Assessing suggestibility regarding seeming movement of light

- Appreciating a tasty food that others love

15

Asch

- Conformity

- Agreement with others' obviously wrong perceptual judgments

- Doing as others do; fads such as tattoos

16

Milgram

- Obedience

- Complying with commands to shock another

- Soldiers or employees following questionable orders

17

Normative influence

Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance

18

Informational influence

Conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people

19

Self-serving bias

The tendency to perceive oneself favorably

20

Self-serving attributions

A form of self-serving bias; tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors

21

Confirmation bias

We tend to look for and acknowledge information that confirms our bias but tend to ignore, deny, or minimize anything that goes against it

- This interferes with critical thinking

22

Overconfidence effect

Tendency to be more confident than correct, we assume that we are right and we are confident in that belief

- Tend to put too much emphasis on our belief system which interferes with our belief system, which interferes with critical thinking

23

Unreliability of memory

Memory is reconstructed and does not work like a tape recorder so we tend to remember things the way we want to remember them

24

Illusory control

You believe you have more control over something than you really do. Ex: gambling

- We know it doesn't make logical sense but we do it anyways

25

Illusory correlation

Perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists

26

Representativeness heuristics

Tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member.

- Superficial or stereotypical according to our belief

- Judge something by intuitively comparing it to our mental representation of a category

27

Availability heuristic

A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory, if things come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace

28

Attribution theory

A belief or inference we formulate about behavior, has to do with the cause of the behavior, not analyzed

- Howe people explain others' behavior

29

Internal/dispositional/personal

Cause of behavior is something about the individual

- Don't have my food because waiter is lazy

30

External/situational/cirmcumstantial

Cause of the behavior is outside the person

- Don't have food because problems with stove

31

Fundamental attribution error

We tend to emphasize internal attribution and minimize external attribution

- Attribution could be correct

32

Common sense attributions

Extenuating circumstances when making attributions, other cognitive factors that comes into play

33

Cognitive dissonance

Inconsistency between behavior and thoughts or two different thoughts, we tend to rationalize instead of being rational

34

Negative reinforcement

X (negative stimuli) --> Y --> Removal of X --> Y

35

Consistency theory

Thoughts, attitudes and beliefs need to be consistent with actions and behavior

- There can be a change in attitudes after a change in behavior

36

Effort justification hypothesis

If you put X amount of effort into something, you need to get X amount of justification/reward for that effort

- Effort and justification need to be in alignment

37

Fessinger and carlsmith

College students had to turn wooden pegs as the experiment and they had to lie and tell other students that it was a worthwhile task

- One group was given $1 and another group $20

- For the $1 group, the effort of lying was not justified