The Respiratory System: Part B

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1

What are the four respiratory volumes?

  1. Tidal Volume (TV)
  2. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
  3. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
  4. Residual volume (RV)
2

Tidal volume (TV)

  • Adult male avg. volume- 500ml
  • Adult female avg. volume- 500ml
  • Amounts of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions
3

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

  • Adult males avg. volume- 3100ml
  • Adult female avg. volume- 1900ml
  • Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration
4

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

  • Adult male avg. volume- 1200ml
  • Adult female avg. volume- 700ml
  • Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration
5

Residual Volume (RV)

  • Adult male avg. volume- 1200ml
  • Adult female avg. volume- 1100ml
  • Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration
6

What are the four respiratory capacities?

  1. Inspiratory capacity (IC)
  2. Functional residual capacity (FRC)
  3. Vital capacity (VC)
  4. Total lung capacity (TLC)
7
  1. Anatomical dead space
  2. Alveolar dead space
  3. Total dead space

What are the three types of dead space?

8

Anatomical dead space

  • No contribution to gas exchange
  • Air remaining in passageways; ~150ml
9

Alveolar dead space

  • non-functional alveoli due to collapse or obstruction
10

Total dead space

  • sum of anatomical and alveolar dead space
11

Spirometer

instrument for measuring respiratory volumes and capacities

Spirometry can distinguish between

  • Obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Restrictive disorders
12

Obstructive pulmonary disease

increased airway resistance (e.g. bronchitis)

  • TLC, FRC, RV may increase
13

Restrictive disorders

reduced TLC due to disease or fibrosis

  • VC, TLC, FRC, RV decline
14

Forced vital capacity (FVC)

gas forcibly expelled after taking deep breath

15

Forced expiratory volume (FEV)

amount of gas expelled during specific time intervals of FVC

16

Minute ventilation

  • Total amount of gas flow into or out of respiratory tract in one minute
    • Normal at rest= ~6 L/min
    • Normal with exercise = up to 200 L/min
    • Only rough estimate of respiratory efficiency
17

Alveolar Ventilation

  • Good indicator of effective ventilation
  • (AVR)- flow of gases into and our of alveoli during a particular time
  • Deep space normally constant
  • Rapid, shallow breathing decreases AVR
18

Nonrespiratory Air movements

  • May modify normal respiratory rhythm
  • Most result from reflex action; some voluntary
  • ex: cough, sneeze, crying, laughing, hiccups, & yawns
19

External respiration

diffusion of gases in lungs

20

Internal respiration

diffusion of gases at body tissues

21

External respiration & internal respiration

both involve

  • Physical properties of gases
  • Composition of alveolar gas
22

Basic Properties of Gases: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

  • total pressure exerted by mixture of gases= sum of pressures exerted by each gas
  • __________
    • Pressure exerted by each gas in mixture
    • Directly proportional to its percentage in mixture