USC FNP bridge course 4.2 Principles of inheritance

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1

Principles of inheritance

In human cells the nuclei contain a diploid number of chromosomes. Genetic information is carried on 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes- one from the mother and one from the father

22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair is sex chromosomes.

In rare cases someone may carry an extra chromosome.

2

Basic concepts

Gene is a unit of DNA that carries the genitic information for one protein

allele is different forms of a gene.

Genotype is a set of alleles, the genetic composition

the phenotype is related to the protein that is made and how that is expressed.

3

Important terms in genetics

...

4

Genotypes for selected human phenotypes

Genotype is either uppercase or lower case.

5

review of common terms

capital letters and lower case is one particular allele of a particular gene. Upper case is dominant.

If you have an upper case and lower case the one that is dominant (upper case) shows up as the phenotype.

6

Homozygous

Same alleles for the dominant or recessive trait

7

Heterozygous

one dominant and one recessive, two different alleles are present.

The dominant phenotype will be expressed.