Cardiovascular Terminology (Ranzie handout)

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1

A metabolic condition in which the acid in your body or body tissue is too great

Acidosis

2

Synonymous with epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland

Adrenalin

3

The outermost layer of the arterial wall, rich in connective tissue and nerve fibers, contains specialized group of blood vessels called vasa vasorum

Adventitia

4

A protein made by the liver and transported in the blood, it helps maintain the fluid within the vascular tree and transports fatty acids

Albumin

5

Those metabolic reactions in which cells or tissues and large molecules are synthesized or built up

Anabolism

6

A reaction which takes place in the absence of oxygen

Anaerobic Reactions

7

A connection between vessels and/or grafts

Anastomosis

8

The study of blood vessels, either arteries or veins, made by the injection of a radiopaque substance, permitting visualization by x-ray

Angiography

9

Baloonlike sac formed by the dilation of the walls of an artery damaged by atherosclerosis

Aneurysm

10

Small air sacs in the lungs from which blood receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide

Alveoli

11

Spasmodic chest pains usually resulting from decreased blood flow to the heart caused by atherosclerosis

Angina Pectoris

12

A vasoconstrictor substance present in the blood and formed by the action of renin on a globulin of the blood plasma

Angiotensin II

13

The condition which there is the absence of oxygen

Anoxia

14

The main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body

Aorta

15

The point in the aorta at which it curves from an upward to a downward direction

Aortic arch

16

Any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart

Arrhythmia

17

A blood clot formed within the arterial system.

Arterial thrombosis

18

X-ray picture of the lumen or channel of an artery made by injecting radiopaque substance into the blood

Arteriogram

19

Small muscular vessels that are formed from the small branches of the arteries, then branch to form capillaries

Arterioles

20

Disease of the arteries, often referred to as hardening of the arteries

Arteriosclerosis

21

A vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues of the body

Artery

22

Showing or causing no symptoms

Asymptomatic

23

A focal deposition of lipid, or fatty material, and cholesterol within the intimal layer of the artery, may progress to narrow or block the lumen of the artery

Atheromoa (atheromatous plaque)

24

A specific form of arteriosclerosis in which an artery-wall thickens as a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells (WBCs) (foam cell) and proliferation of intimal-smooth-muscle cell creating a fibrofatty plaque. Causes most strokes and heart attacks

Atherosclerosis

25

A form of hardening of the arteries in which cholesterol and lipid accumulate within the artery wall of the coronary arteries, at first affecting the intimal later of the artery and leading to narrowing or occlusion of the vessel

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease

26

A type of heart irregularity in which the atrial contractions are poor and irregular, and not coordinated with those of the ventricle

Atrial Fibrillation

27

A common type of heart defect in which there is a hole in the septum or wall between the left and right atria

Atrial septal defect

28

The specialized bundle of muscle and nerve tissue located in the wall of the right ventricle. It is stimulated by impulses from the Sinoatrial node to discharge impulses that result in contraction within the heart muscle

Atrio Ventricular Node (AV Node)

29

The small antechamber of the heart which receives blood from the lungs and body

Atrium

30

The wasting away or diminution in size of a tissue or cell

Atrophy

31

Specialized sensory nerve ending sensitive to changes in blood pressure located within certain sites in the walls of arteries

Baroreceptors

32

Division of two branches

Bifurcation

33

A murmur, a swishing noise produced by the blood as it rushes through an artery narrowed by an obstruction

Bruit

34

A surgical procedure in which a graft is attached to an artery above and below the site of obstruction for the purpose of providing a normal blood flow to the diseased vessel

Bypass Operation

35

The process by which tissues, including those of the arterial wall, become hardened by a deposit of calcium

Calcification

36

A tube for insertion into blood vessels or the heart

Cannula

37

To pass a cannula or tube into the heart or a blood vessel

Cannulate

38

Small vessels, only one cell thickness, from which blood supplies oxygen and nutrients to tissue

Capillaries

39

A condition usually cased by bleeding from the heart or a major vessel near the heart that rapidly fills the pericardial sac around the heart with blood, resulting in compression of the heart

Cardiac Tamponade

40

Used synonymously with heart-lung machine, venous blood is diverted to this machine where it is oxygenated before being sent back to the body

Cardiac Pulmonary Bypass Machine

41

The principle arteries which supply blood to the brain, they arise from the innominate artery on the right and the arch of the aorta on the left

Carotid arteries

42

A bulblike structure at or above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the external and internal carotid arteries in the neck. These receptors maintain normal blood pressure

Carotid sinus

43

Those metabolic reactions in which cells or tissues and large molecules are broken down

Catabolism

44

An artery that arises from the abdominal aorta and divides into arteries supplying blood to the liver, spleen and stomach

Celiac artery

45

Pertaining to the blood of the cerebrum or brain

Cerebro-vascular

46

Type of animal fat called sterol; the body gets cholesterol both by making it and from the diet

Cholesterol

47

String like connections that attach the edges of the mitral valve to the papillary muscle

Chordae Tendinae

48

One of the two main branches that normally originates from the left coronary artery, supplies blood to the left lateral and posterior aspects of the heart

Cirumflex coronary artery

49

A congenital heart defect in which there is a severe narrowing of the aorta usually in the distal part of tha rch

Coarctation of the aorta

50

The development of connections around an obstruction to blood flow through the growth of small arteries above and below the obstruction

Collateral circulation

51

A form of inherited abnormality in the coronary arteries

Congenital coronary disease

52

The ability of the heart muscle to contract and pump blood

Contractility of the heart

53

A study of the coronary arteries performed by introducing s catheter to inject radiopaque dye which permits visualization of the vessels by x-rays

Coronary Arteriogram

54

A clinical condition characterized by a bluish appearance caused by a lock of oxygen in the blood

Cyanosis

55

Death of cells in the media of the arterial wall, with the formation of a cyst or open space at the site of tissue destruction

Cystic Medal Necrosis

56

The phase of the hearts cycle during which it relaxes and fills its chambers with blood

Diastole

57

The presence of abnormally amounts of fluid in the intracellular tissue spaces of the body

Edema

58

A recording of a tracing of the hearts electrical activities, usually measured in a standard way

Electrocardiogram

59

Recording of the electrical impulses of the heart

Electrocardiography

60

An operation in which an embolus is removed from a blood vessel

Embolectomy

61

A clot or other matter which travels through the bloodstream to lodge in a small vessel and cause an obstruction to the circulation

Embolus

62

A surgical procedure in which an artery is opened and the atherosclerotic lesion is peeled away from the arterial wall and removed

Endarterectomy

63

The inner lining of the heart which is in contact with the blood

Endocardium

64

The innermost layer of cells lining a blood vessel

Endothelium

65

The outer layer of the heart in contact with the pericardial sac which contains the heart

Epicardium

66

The study of the cause of any disease

Etiology

67

Outside of a cell

Extracellular

68

Circulation of the blood through a mechanical device, usually a heart lung machine, outside the patients body

Extracorporeal Circulation

69

Arteries supplying blood to the brain before they enter the skull

Extracranial Arteries

70

An artery in the upper leg

Femoral artery

71

An elastic filament protein that is formed by the action of thrombin to produce the clotting of blood

Fibrin

72

A long fibrillary protein found in the blood, transformed to a smaller protein called fimbrin during the formation of a blood clot

Fibrinogen

73

The abnormal increase in the number of normal muscle cells in an artery causing thickening of the wall and narrowing or occlusion of the vessel

Fibromuscular Hyperplasia

74

The formation of fibrous tissue

Fibrosis

75

Spindle-shaped

Fusiform

76

A conjugated protein within the red blood cells that is capable of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide

Hemoglobin

77

A mucopolysaccharide acid occurring in various tissues, but most abundantly in the liver, when injected in to the circulation it blocks blood coagulation and promotes the clearing of triglycerides fat

Heparin

78

A state of equilibrium in which the chemical substances and various components of the body are in balance with each other

Homesostasis

79

The condition in which the blood pressure within the arteries is elevated

Hypertension

80

the sinoatrial node, a small bundle of muscle fibers and nerves in the right atrium which sends out electrical impulses

Pacemaker

81

Treatment that provides relief for the condition, but not the cure

Palliative

82

The muscles inside the ventricles of the heart which are attached to the mitral valve

Papillary muscles

83

Pertaining to one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, tends to slow the heart rate and causes widening or dilation of arterioles

Parasympathetic

84

A surgical procedure which consists if suturing a patch into the incision in the wall of an artery in order to widen the lumen of the vessel

Patch-graft angioplasty

85

Surgical procedure which consists of stripping off a section of the pericardium, the sac which contains the heart

Pericardiectomy

86

Pertaining to the fibrous sac that contains the heart

Pericardial

87

Obstruction or occlusion of a distal artery in the limbs, brain or kidney, usually by a clot, but sometimes a mass of bacteria transported in to the bloodstream

Peripheral Embolization

88

A well demarcated area, raised patch or swelling, on a body surface. Has a yellow appearance, and produced by fatty deposits

Plaque

89

The fluid part of the body

Plasma

90

A macromolecular complex of fat or lipids and proteins. They are the vehicle which fats are solubilized and transported in to the blood

Plasma lipoproteins

91

A cellular element of the blood which may participate in the clotting, or coagulation mechanism

Platelet

92

Fats that do not harden at room temperature

Polyunsaturated fats

93

An artery behind the knee that carries blood from the femoral artery to the lower leg

Popliteal artery

94

Nearest, closer to any point of reference, as opposed to distal

Proximal

95

The vessel transporting blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, the pulmonary artery contains relatively deoxygenated blood which is replenished with oxygen in the lungs

Pulmonary artery

96

A condition associated with heart failure in which the left ventricle of the heart does not pump adequately, causing fluid to accumulate within the lungs

Pulmonary edema

97

A substance that is carried from a distal part of the vascular tree to the lungs where it is too large to pass through the pulmonary vessel

Pulmonary embolus

98

The condition in which the pressure in the pulmonary arteries is increased, and which may lead to thickening and damaging of the walls of the vessels, with a back pressure exerted on blood flow from the right ventricle

Pulmonary hypertension

99

The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

Pulmonary valve

100

The vessels carrying blood from the lungs back to the right atrium, the pulmonary veins contain blood which has been oxygenated by the lungs

Pulmonary vein

101

An x-ray of the kidney and ureters, usually obtained through the intravenous injection of radiopaque material

Pyelogram

102

The property of blocking x-rays resulting in light or white appearance on the exposed x-ray film

Radiopaque

103

Major arteries from the abdominal aorta to the kidneys

Renal arteries

104

X-Ray

Roentgenogram

105

The 2 large superficial veins of the leg

Saphenous Veins

106

Fats that harden at room temperature

Saturated fats

107

the process of obliterating through the formation of extensive scarring

Sclerosing

108

A dividing wall or partition

Septum

109

The fluid part of blood which remains after a blood clot is formed and removed

Serum

110

Arteries that supply blood to the superior portion of the chest, shoulders, and arms, it branches out from the aorta to the right and left .... artery

Subclavian artery

111

Beneath the skin

Subcutaneous

112

The artery from the abdominal aorta that supplies the small intestine

Superior mesenteric artery

113

The main vein returning blood to the heart from the upper part of the body

Superior vena cava

114

Pertaining to one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. It speeds up the heart and causes constriction, narrowing, of the blood vessels

Sympathetic

115

The phase of the heart cycle during which the heart contracts to pump blood to the body

Systole

116

Pertaining to the chest

Thoracic

117

A protein involved in blood clotting

Thrombin

118

A procedure which consists of removing a blood clot associated with an atheromatous lesion

Thrombo-endartectomy

119

Low oxygen content in tissue

Tissue hypoxia

120

A severe form of a congenital heart disease while the basic abnormality is a transposition of the aorta and the pulmonary artery

Transposition of the great arteries or vessels

121

Through a vein

Transvenous

122

A congenital defect in which the tricuspid valve is absent

Tricuspid Atresia

123

Pertaining to the blood vessels

Vascular

124

The large chambers of the heart from which blood is propelled out to the lungs and the body

Ventricles

125

A heart irregularity in which the heart beats rapidly but ineffectively so that the blood is not pumped out of the body

Ventricular fibrillation

126

Small vessels that carry blood back towards the heart from the capillaries, they contain the large vessels called veins

Venules

127

Two arteries that arise from the right and left subclavian arteries and supply blood to the posterior and basal aspects of the brain

Vertebral Arteries

128

Any large internal organ

Viscera