Usc FNP bridge course 4.3 Mendelian inheritance

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Human genetics
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Use Gregor Mendels principles of inheritance of plant traits to predict the outcome of human traits

Principle of segregation- in meiosis, the genes that are encoded on your chromosomes will distribute randomly

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Predicting inheritance using a pungent square

designed to predict the possible gametes that are formed from any one individual and see what would happen if a zygote if formed.

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Principles of dominance

the phenotype is the moth color, dominant trait is determined by the homozygous allele.

AA homozygous dominant allele = dark

Aa heterozygous

aa homozygous recessive

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Dominant and recessive traits

if you segregate the chromosomes into gametes, in albinism the mother has the possibility of the zygote being albino is 1/3.

Recessive traits only show up if a homozygous trait shows up on both alleles.

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genotypes and phenotypes using punnett squares

both of these have heterozygous traits for freckles of the allele.

the zygote has a 1/4 chance of a recessive possibility that does not have freckles

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PKU- Phenylketonuria

P- dominant

p- carrier/recessive

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25% chance that the child will be born with CF

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Dominant disease is less common because death is usually earlier.

traits start after 40Y/O.

Dominant disease show up more frequently

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When a heterozygous individual expresses a phenotype intermediate between the dominant and recessive phenotype.

if you have a dominant trait it will show up, if its recessive then you have a smaller chance.

in a heterozygous state you have a blending of the two traits.

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caused by a mutated hemoglobin protein in RBC. The mutated version of Hgb, leads to anemia.

A person who is heterozygous will display sickle cell traits in situation of low O2 i.e.: high altitude vs someone who has the trait shows signs all the time.

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the presence of both alleles will have both traits show up at the same time.

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genetics and also enviornment will lead to certain factors.

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eye color is influenced by 16 different genes.

Brown eyes tend to be dominant.

Get- blue or green allele, but brown will still be dominant.

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sex is determined by X or Y chromosome.

Females have XX, males have XY

Y chromosome tends to only express sex difference

some genes are specific to the X chromosome- sex linked traits.

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son will display the trait because he has the dominant X and the y. Set linked traits are passed from mother to son.

if the father passes on the trait then the daughters will be recessive or carriers and the sons will not be affected.

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25% chance the son will have the disease.