Usc FNP bridge course 4.1 genetics: the basica

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Genetics
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Inheritance of genetic traits

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principles of inheritance, how traits are displayed.

Genetic mutations

how mutations can cause different diseases

genetic testing, how to use biotechnology for our genetic make up.

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Video on what are genes, differences in genes, how genes decipher our physical traits.

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In human cells the nuclei contain a diploid number of 23 chromosomes. 22 are autosomes and 1 pair is sex chromosomes.

Rare cases have 1 extra or 1 less set of chromosomes.

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Genes are segments of DNA that code for functional products. Usually these products are proteins, but they can also be RNAs (rRNA, tRNA or miRNA.

allele is an alternative version of a trait. Different forms of a gene. a slightly different nucleotide sequence.

Genotype of an organism is its genetic make-up or all its DNA that codes for a particular characteristic of an organism. The set of alleles or genetic composition. the individuals genetic makeup.

Phenotype actual expressed properties, or the manifestation of the genotype. How that protein is made and expressed to show physical characteristics of a person. the outward appearance.

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homologous pair of chromosomes with a segment of gene is a particular segment that encodes a protein and a pair of alleles are the versions of that particular gene that we have.

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The genotype expressed by a particular gene is with upper or lower case.

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upper case letter is noted to be dominant.

If you have the same two alleles (FF or ff) you are homozygous for the dominant trait.

lower case ff is non dominant.

Ff means heterozygous, The phenotype that is dominant (F) will always show up.

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homologous chromosomes are?

a pair of chromosomes with one from the mother and one from the father.