Joint Angles

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1

Sternoclavicular Joint - 6 movements & range of motion

Motion:

Protraction Moves anteriorly 15°

Retraction Moves posteriorly 15°

Elevation Moves superiorly 45°

Depression Moves inferiorly 5°

Upward rotation 45°

Downward rotation 5°

2

Acromioclavicular joint -

Protraction-retraction 20°–30° rotational and gliding motion

Elevation-depression 20°–30° rotational and gliding motion

Upward rotation– downward rotation 20°–30° rotational and gliding motion

3

Scapulothoracic joint

Abduction-adduction 25° total range

Upward rotation– downward rotation 60° total range

Elevation-depression 55° total range

4

Glenohumeral Joint

Flexion 90°–100°

Extension 40°–60°

Abduction 90°–95°

Adduction 0° prevented by trunk, 75° anterior to trunk

Internal rotation 70°–90°

External rotation 70°–90°

Horizontal abduction 45°

Horizontal adduction 135°

5

Elbow Joint

Extension 0°

Flexion 145°–150°

6

Radioulnar joint

Supination 80°–90°

Pronation 70°–90°

7

Wrist joint

Flexion 70°–90°

Extension 65°–85°

Abduction 15°–25°

Adduction 25°–40°

8

Thumb - carpometacarpal

Flexion 15°–45°

Extension 0°–20°

Adduction 0°

Abduction 50°–70°

9

Thumb - metacarpophalangeal

Extension 0°

Flexion 40°–90°

10

Thumb interphalangeal

Flexion 80°–90°

Extension 0°

11

2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th metacarpophalangeal joints

Extension 0°–40°

Flexion 85°–100°

Abduction Variable 10°–40°

Adduction Variable 10°–40°

12

2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th proximal interphalangeal joints

Flexion 90°–120°

Extension 0°

13

2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th distal interphalangeal joints

Flexion 80°–90°

Extension 0°

14

Cervical joints

Flexion 80°

Extension 20°–30°

Lateral flexion 35°

Rotation 45° unilaterally

15

Lumbar joints

Flexion 45°

Extension 45°

Lateral flexion 45°

Rotation 60° unilaterally

16

Hip joint

Flexion 130°

Extension 30°

Abduction 35°

Adduction 0°–30°

External rotation 50°

Internal rotation 45°

17

Knee joint

For internal and external rotation to occur, the knee must be flexed approximately 30° or more.

Extension 0°

Flexion 140°

Internal rotation 30°

External rotation 45°

18

Ankle (talocrural) joint

Plantar flexion 50°

Dorsal flexion 15°–20°

19

Transverse Tarsal & subtalar joints

Inversion 20°–30°

Eversion 5°–15°

20

Great toe metatarsophalangeal

Flexion 45°

Extension 70°

Abduction Variable 5°–25°

Adduction Variable 5°–25°

21

Great toe interphalangeal

Flexion 90°

Extension 0°

22

2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th metatarsophalangeal joints

Flexion 40°

Extension 40°

Abduction Variable 5°–25°

Adduction Variable 5°–25°

23

2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th proximal interphalangeal joints

Flexion 35°

Extension 0°

24

2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th distal interphalangeal joints

Flexion 60°

Extension 30°

25

Scapula abductor muscles

Scapula abductors:

Serratus anterior

Pectoralis minor

Exercises:

Front press

Dumbbell flys

Dumbbell press

Bench press

Close-grip bench press

Incline press

Push-ups Incline

26

Scapula Abductor Muscles & Exercises

Scapula adductors

Rhomboid

Trapezius

middle/lower fibers

Exercises:

Bent-over lateral raises

Bent rows

27

Scapula upward rotators Muscles & Exercises

Serratus anterior

Trapezius lower fibers/middle fibers

Exercises:

Dumbbell press

Lateral raises

Upright rows

28

Scapula downward rotators Muscles & Exercises

Pectoralis minor

Rhomboid

Exercises:

Parallel bar dips

Dumbbell pullovers

Reverse chin-ups

Lat pulldowns

29

Scapula elevator muscles & exercises

Rhomboid

Levator scapulae

Trapezius, upper fibers/middle fibers

Exercises:

Upright rows

Shrugs

Dead lifts

30

Scapula Depressors Muscles & Exercises

Pectoralis minor

Trapezius, lower fibers

Exercises:

Parallel bar dips

Body dips

31

Should Flexor Muscles & Exercises

Deltoid, anterior fibers/middle fibers

Pectoralis major, clavicular fibers

Coracobrachialis

Exercises:

Arm curls

Triceps dips

One-arm dumbbell press

Front raises

Low pulley front raises

One-dumbbell front raises

Barbell front raises

32

Shoulder Extensors Muscles & Exercises

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Triceps brachii, long head

Pectoralis major, sternal fibers

Deltoid, posterior fibers

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Exercises:

Dumbbell pullovers

Barbell pullovers

Reverse chin-ups

Close-grip lat pulldowns

Straight-arm lat pulldowns

One-arm dumbbell rows

33

Shoulder Abductor Muscles & Exercises

Deltoid, anterior fibers/posterior fibers/middle fibers

Pectoralis major, clavicular fibers

Supraspinatus

Exercises:

Back press

Front press

Dumbbell press

One-arm dumbbell press

Lateral raises

Side-lying lateral raises

Low pulley lateral raises

Upright rows

34

Shoulder Adductors Muscles & Exercises

Pectoralis major

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Subscapularis

Coracobrachialis

Exercises:

Triceps dips

Parallel bar dips

Chin-ups

Lat pulldowns

Back lat pulldowns

35

Shoulder Internal Rotator Muscles & Exercises

Pectoralis major

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Subscapularis

Exercises:

Triceps dips

Side-lying internal rotations

Standing internal rotations at 90 degrees abduction

36

Shoulder External Rotator Muscles & Exercises

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Exercises:

Side-lying external rotations

Standing external rotations at 90 degrees abduction

37

Shoulder horizontal Abductors Muscles & Exercises

Latissimus dorsi

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Deltoid, middle fibers/posterior fibers

Exercises:

Bent-over lateral raises

Low pulley bent-over lateral raises

Pec deck rear delt laterals

Bent rows

T-bar rows

38

Shoulder horizontal adductors Muscles & Exercises

Pectoralis major

Coracobrachialis

Exercises:

Dumbbell flys

Triceps dips

Dumbbell press

Bench press

Close-grip bench press

Incline press

Decline press

Push-ups

Incline dumbbell press

Incline dumbbell flys

Pec deck flys

Cable crossover flys

Seated rows

39

Elbow Flexors Muscles & Exercises

Biceps brachii

Brachialis

Brachioradialis

Exercises:

Arm curls

concentration curls

Hammer curls

Low pulley curls

High pulley curls

Barbell curls

Machine curls

Preacher curls

Reverse barbell curls

Chin-ups

Reverse chin-ups

Lat pulldowns

Back lat pulldowns

Close-grip lat pulldowns

Seated rows

One-arm dumbbell rows

Bent rows

T-bar rows

Upright rows

40

Elbow Extensor Muscles & Exercises

Triceps brachii, lateral head/long head/medial head

Anconeus

Exercises:

Pressing movements

41

Wrist flexor muscles & exercises

Flexor carpi radialis

Palmaris longus

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor digitorum profundus

Exercises:

Wrist curls

42

Wrist extensors Muscles & Exercises

Extensor carpi radialis longus

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Exercises:

Reverse barbell curls

Reverse wrist curls

Reverse pushdowns

43

Finger flexors Muscles & Exercises

Hand intrinsics

Flexor digitorum profundus

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor pollicis longus

Exercises:

Ball squeezes

Dead lifts

44

Finger Extensor Muscles & Exercises

Extensor digitorum

Extensor digiti minimi

Extensor indicis

Exercises:

Reverse barbell curls

Reverse wrist curls

Rubber band stretches

45

Hip flexor muscles & exercises

Rectus femoris

Iliopsoas

Pectineus

Tensor fasciae latae

Exercises:

Crunches

Sit-ups

Incline bench sit-ups

Leg raises

Hanging leg raises

46

Hip extensor muscles & exercises

Gluteus maximus

Biceps femoris, long head

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Exercises:

Stiff-legged dead lifts

Floor hip extensions

Bridging Prone arches

47

Hip Abductor Muscles & Exercises

Gluteus medius

Gluteus maximus

Tensor fascia latae

Exercises:

Cable hip abductions

Clamshells

48

Hip Adductor Muscles & Exercises

Adductor magnus

Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Gracilis

Exercises:

Machine Adductions

49

Hip external rotators muscles & exercises

Gluteus maximus

Piriformis

Gemellus superior

Gemellus inferior

Obturator externus

Obturator internus

Quadratus femoris

Exercises:

Hip turn-outs

Body turn-aways

50

Knee extensor muscles & exercises

Vastus medialis

Vastus intermedius

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis

Exercises:

Leg extensions

Dead lifts

Squats

Lunges

51

Knee flexor muscles & exercises

Semitendinosus

Biceps femoris, long head/short head

Semimembranosus

Gastrocnemius, lateral head/medial head

Exercises:

Leg curls

52

Ankle dorsiflexion muscles & exercises

Tibialis anterior

Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor digitorum longus

Peroneous tertius

Exercises:

Towel pulls

Elastic band pulls

53

Ankle Plantar Flexors Muscles & Exercises

Gastrocnemius, lateral head/medial head

Soleus

Exercises:

Calf Raises

54

Transverse tarsal/subtalar inversion muscles & exercises

Tibialis anterior

Tibialis posterior

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

Exercises:

Towel drags

Elastic band turn-ins

55

Transverse tarsal/subtalar eversion muscles & exercises

Extensor digitorum longus

Peroneus longus

Peroneus brevis

Peroneus tertius

Exercises:

Towel drags

Elastic band turn-outs

56

Toe extensors muscles & exercises

Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor digitorum longus

Exercises:

Towel Pulls

Elastic Band Pulls

57

Toe Flexors muscles & exercises

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

Foot intrinsics

Exercises:

Towel curls

Marble Pickups

Pencil Pickups

58

Cervical extensor muscles & exercises

Splenius cervicis

Splenius capitus

Trapezius, upper fibers

Exercises:

Neck extensions

59

Cervical flexor muscles & exercises

Sternocleidomastoid

Exercises:

Chin tucks

60

Cervical rotation muscles & exercises

Sternocleidomastoid

Splenius cervicis

Splenius capitus

Exercises:

Neck rotations

61

Trunk extensors muscles & exercises

Erector spinae

Exercises:

Back extensions

Alternating prone extensions

Prone arches

62

Trunk flexor muscles & exercises

Rectus abdominis

External oblique abdominal

Internal oblique abdominal

Exercises:

Dead lifts

Crunches

Crunch twists

Sit-ups

High pulley crunches

Leg raises

Hanging leg raises

63

Trunk rotator muscles & exercises

External oblique abdominal

Internal oblique abdominal

Exercises:

Twisting Sit-Ups

High pulley crunches

Machine crunches

Incline leg raises

Leg raises

Hanging leg raises

Broomstick twists

Dumbbell side bends

Roman chair side bends

64

Trunk lateral flexor muscles & exercises

External oblique abdominal

Internal oblique abdominal

Quadratus lumborum

Rectus abdominis

Exercises:

High pulley crunches

Machine crunches

Incline leg raises

Leg raises

Hanging leg raises

Broomstick twists

Dumbbell side bends

Roman chair side bends