USC bridge Nurs 500 3.3 Chromosomes and Genetics

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Cell division and nucleic acid function
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Chromosomes and Genetics- the study of heredity

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Karotype

diploid chromosomal complement displayed in homologous pairs

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Genome

the genetic information in a cell.

Genetic (DNA) makeup, represents two sets of genetic instructions- one from the egg and one from the sperm.

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Chromatin

in the nucleus, is uncondensed lose and unwound, made of DNA histone proteins are wrapped around the DNA. Becomes condensed into the chromosome structure called a chromatid.

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Telomeres

The ends of the Eukaryotic chromosomes, nucleotide sequences that don't encode proteins, protect the gene sequence from being lost. Cap the chromosomes to protect them from being degraded.

Aging cells have lost the ends of the telomere, when that happens the cell is destroyed.

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Telemerase

Can make new telemeres

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Chromosomes- Genes, allele, genotype, phenotype

Chromosomes- structures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary information, chromosomes contain genes.

Gene- DNA segments containing genetic blueprints for proteins that dictate the synthesis of the body's molecules.

Allele-A specific version of a gene. Matched pairs of genes one from each parent that interact to dictate that trait. Homogolous chromomes. May code for the same or for alternative forms of a given trait. Ie: hair.

genotype- a person's genetic makeup

phenotype- actual expressed properties, the way that genotype is expressed

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Homozygous (homologous)

when 2 alleles that control a trait are the same

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Heterozygous

when the two alleles are different.

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Dominant vs recessive

when the allele masks or suppresses the expression of its partner it is dominant (shown by a capital letter). Recessive is the masked allele (shown by a lowercase letter). Recessive alleles must be present in double dose to be expressed also known as a homogenous condition.