##### Research Methods Chapter 6

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1
• Assignment Bias
• History
• Environmental Variables
• Regression to the Mean
• Maturation
• Instrumentation
• Testing Effects

Threats to Internal Validity

2

Descriptive Research Strategy

a general approach to research that involves measuring a variable or set of variables as they exist naturally to produce a description of individual variables as they exist within a specific group, but does not attempt to describe or explain relationships between variables

3

Linear Relationships

shows the changing values of two variables, a pattern in which the data points tend to cluster around a straight line

4

Curvilinear Relationship

graph showing the changing values of two variables, a pattern in which the data points tend to cluster around a curved line

5

Positive Relationship

a relationship in which the two variables or measurements tend to change together in the same direction

6

Negative Relationship

a relationship in which the two variables or measurements tend to change together in opposite directions

7

Correlational Research Strategy

General approach to research that involves measuring two or more variables for each individual to describe the relationship between the variables

8

Experimental Research Strategy

Research strategy that attempts to establish the existence of a cause- and-effect relationship between two variables by manipulating one variable while measuring the second variable and controlling all other variables

9

Quasi-experimental Research Strategy

a strategy that attempts to limit threats to internal validity and produces cause and effect conclusions but lacks either manipulation or control

10

Nonexperimental Research Strategy

a strategy that attempts to demonstrate a relationship between two variables by comparing different groups of scores but makes no attempt to minimize threats to internal validity or to explain the relationship

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Research Design

specifies whether the study will involve groups or individual participants, will make comparisons within a group or between groups, and how many variables will be included in the study

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Research Procedure

is an exact, step-by-step description of a specific research study

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External Validity

refers to the extent to which we can generalize the results of a research study to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those used in that study

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Internal Validity

produces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables

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• Selection Bias
• College Student
• Volunteer Bias
• Participant Characteristics
• Cross-species generalization

Threats to External Validity: Category 1

16
• Novelty effect
• Multiple-treatment interference
• Experimenter characteristics

Threats to External Validity: Category 2

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• Sensitization
• Generality across response measures
• Time of measurement

Threats to External Validity: Category 3

18

Extraneous Variable

any variable in a research study other than the specific variables being studied

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Confounding Variable

is an extraneous variable (usually unmonitored) that changes systematically along with the two variables being studied. provides an alternative explanation for the results

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• Assignment Bias
• History
• Environmental Variables
• Regression to the Mean
• Maturation
• Instrumentation
• Time-Related Variables

Threats to Internal Validity

21

experimenter bias

occurs when the experimenter's expectation or personal beliefs regarding the outcome of the study influence the findings of a study.