Research Methods Chapter 6

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1
  • Assignment Bias
  • History
  • Environmental Variables
  • Regression to the Mean
  • Maturation
  • Instrumentation
  • Testing Effects

Threats to Internal Validity

2

Descriptive Research Strategy

a general approach to research that involves measuring a variable or set of variables as they exist naturally to produce a description of individual variables as they exist within a specific group, but does not attempt to describe or explain relationships between variables

3

Linear Relationships

shows the changing values of two variables, a pattern in which the data points tend to cluster around a straight line

4

Curvilinear Relationship

graph showing the changing values of two variables, a pattern in which the data points tend to cluster around a curved line

5

Positive Relationship

a relationship in which the two variables or measurements tend to change together in the same direction

6

Negative Relationship

a relationship in which the two variables or measurements tend to change together in opposite directions

7

Correlational Research Strategy

General approach to research that involves measuring two or more variables for each individual to describe the relationship between the variables

8

Experimental Research Strategy

Research strategy that attempts to establish the existence of a cause- and-effect relationship between two variables by manipulating one variable while measuring the second variable and controlling all other variables

9

Quasi-experimental Research Strategy

a strategy that attempts to limit threats to internal validity and produces cause and effect conclusions but lacks either manipulation or control

10

Nonexperimental Research Strategy

a strategy that attempts to demonstrate a relationship between two variables by comparing different groups of scores but makes no attempt to minimize threats to internal validity or to explain the relationship

11

Research Design

specifies whether the study will involve groups or individual participants, will make comparisons within a group or between groups, and how many variables will be included in the study

12

Research Procedure

is an exact, step-by-step description of a specific research study

13

External Validity

refers to the extent to which we can generalize the results of a research study to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those used in that study

14

Internal Validity

produces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables

15
  • Selection Bias
  • College Student
  • Volunteer Bias
  • Participant Characteristics
  • Cross-species generalization

Threats to External Validity: Category 1

16
  • Novelty effect
  • Multiple-treatment interference
  • Experimenter characteristics

Threats to External Validity: Category 2

17
  • Sensitization
  • Generality across response measures
  • Time of measurement

Threats to External Validity: Category 3

18

Extraneous Variable

any variable in a research study other than the specific variables being studied

19

Confounding Variable

is an extraneous variable (usually unmonitored) that changes systematically along with the two variables being studied. provides an alternative explanation for the results

20
  • Assignment Bias
  • History
  • Environmental Variables
  • Regression to the Mean
  • Maturation
  • Instrumentation
  • Time-Related Variables

Threats to Internal Validity

21

experimenter bias

occurs when the experimenter's expectation or personal beliefs regarding the outcome of the study influence the findings of a study.