Research Methods Chapter 3

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1

Constructs

are hypothetical attributes or mechanisms that help explain and predict behavior in theory

2

operational definition

is a procedure for indirectly measuring and defining a variable that cannot be observed or measured directly. specifies a measurement procedure.

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Validity

the degree to which the measurement process measures the variable that it claims to measure

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Face Validity

an unscientific form of validity demonstrated when a measurement procedure superficially appears to measure what it claims to measure

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Concurrent Validity

when scores obtained from a new measure are directly related to scores obtained from an established measure of the same variable

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Predictive validity

demonstrated when scores obtained from a measure accurately predict behavior according to a theory

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Construct Validity

requires that the scores obtained from a measurement procedure behave exactly the same as the variable itself

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Convergent Validity

demonstrated by a strong relationship between the scores obtained from two or more different methods of measuring the same construct

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Divergent Validity

demonstrated by showing little or no relationship between the measurements of two different constructs

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Reliability

is the stability or consistency of the measurement

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Observer Error

Environmental Changes

Participant Changes

Common Sources of Error

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test-retest reliability

is established by comparing the scores obtained from two successive measurements of the same individual and calculating a correlation between the two sets of scores

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inter-rater reliability

is the degree of agreement between two observers who simultaneously record measurements of the behavior

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Split-half Reliability

is obtained by splitting the items on a questionnaire or test in half, computing a sperate score for each half, and then calculating the degree of consistency between the two scores for a group of participants

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Nominal Scale

simply represent qualitative differences in the variable measured. Have different names but are not related to each other in any systematic way.

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Ordinal Scale

have different names and are organized sequentially. Consists of a series of ranks.

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Self-Report Measures

most direct way to assess a construct. participant answers questions about themselves. A disadvantage is that participants can lie.

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Physiological Measures

involve brain imaging techniques such as PET scans and MRIs. researchers monitor activity levels in specific areas of the brain during different kinds of activity.

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Desynchrony

The lack of agreement between two measures and confuses interpretation of results

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Ceiling effect

the clustering of scores at the high end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of increases in value

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Floor Effect

the clustering of scores at the low end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of decreases in value

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Experimenter Bias

occurs when the measurements obtained in a study are influenced by the experimenter's expectation or personal beliefs regarding the outcome of the study

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Single-blind Study

if the researcher does not know the predicted outcome

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Double-blind Study

if both the researcher and the participants are unaware of the predicted outcome

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Demand Characteristics

refers to any of the potential cues or features of a study that suggest to the participants what the purpose and hypothesis is, and influence the participants to respond or behave in a certain way

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Reactivity

occurs when participants modify their natural behavior in response to the fact that they are participating in a research study or the knowledge that they are being measured

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Good Subject Role

Negativistic Subject Role

Apprehensive Subject Role

Faithful Subject Role

Subject Roles

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Good Subject Role

A participant's tendency to respond in a way that is expected to corroborate the investigator's hypothesis

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Negativistic Subject Role

in a study, a participant's tendency to respond in a way that is expected to refute the investigator's hypothesis

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Apprehensive Subject Role

in a study, a participant's tendency to respond in a socially desirable fashion rather than truthfully

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Faithful Subject Role

a participant's attempt to follow experimental instructions to the letter and to avoid acting on the basis of any suspicions about the purpose of te experiment

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laboratory

is any setting that is obviously devoted to the discipline of science. any room or any space that the subject or participant perceives as artificial

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Self-Report Measures

Physiological Measures

Behavioral Measures

Modalities of Measurement