Research Methods chapter 1

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1

methods of acquiring knowledge

are ways in which a person can know things or discover answers to questions

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Method of Tenacity

information is accepted as true because it has always been believed or because superstition supports it

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Method of Intuition

information is accepted on the basis of a hunch or "gut feeling"

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Method of Authority

a person relies on information or answers from an expert in the subject area

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Method of Faith

is a variant of the method of authority in which people have unquestioning trust in the authority figure, and, therefore, accept information from the authority without doubt or challenge

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Rational Method

seeks answers by the use of logical reasoning

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premise statements

describe facts or assumptions that are presumed to be true

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argument

is a set of premise statements that are logically combined to yield a conclusion

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The Empirical Method

uses observation or direct sensory experience to obtain knowledge

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Step 1: Observe Behavior or Other Phenomena

Step 2: Form a Tentative Hypothesis

Step 3: Use a Hypothesis to Generate a Testable Prediction \\

Step 4: Evaluate Prediction by Making Systematic, Planned observation

Step 5: Use observations to support, refute, or refine the original hypothesis

The Steps of the Scientific Method

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Induction or Inductive Reasoning

involves using a relatively small set of specific observations as the basis for forming a general statement about a larger set of possible observations

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Variables

are characteristics or conditions that change or have different values for different individuals.

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hypothesis

is a statement that describes or explains a relationship between or among variables. a proposal to be tested and evaluated

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Deduction

uses a general statement as the basis for reaching a conclusion about specific examples

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Scientific method

is a method of acquiring knowledge that uses observations to develop a hypothesis, and then uses the hypothesis to make logical predictions that can be empirically tested by making additional, systematic observations.

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Quantitative Research

is based on measuring variables for individual participants to obtain scores, usually numerical values, that are submitted to statistical analysis for summary and interpretation

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Qualitative Research

is based on making observations that are summarized and interpreted in a narrative report

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Step 1: Find a Reseach Idea

Step 2: Form a Hypothesis

Step 3: Determine How You Will Define and Measure Variables

Step 4: Identify Participants or Subjects for Study

Step 5: Select a Research Strategy

Step 6: Select a Research Design

Step 7: Conduct the Study

Step 8: Evaluate Data

Step 9: Report the Results

Step 10: Refine or Reformulate Research Idea

Steps in the Research Process

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Participants

individuals who take part in research studies if they are human