Chapter 7 Study Skills: Key Terms

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1

Skeleton

Body system composed of bones, cartilages, joints, and ligaments

2

How much body mass does the skeleton make up?

About 20 percent of total body mass

3

Axial Skeleton

Portion of the skeleton structured from 80 bones segregated into three major regions: the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage

4

What are the three major regions of the axial skeleton?

Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage

5

What is the general function of the axial skeleton?

Forms longitudinal axis of the body, supports the head, neck, and trunk, protects the brain spinal cord, and the organs in the thorax

6

Sutures

interlocking joints within the bones; suture lines have saw-toothed or serrated appearances

7

Skull

Body's most complex bone structure; formed by cranial and facial bones

8

How many bones make up the skull?

22 in all

9

What are the functions of the facial bones?

Form the framework of the face, contain cavities for the special sense organs of sight, taste, and smell, provide openings for air and food passage, secure the teeth, and anchor the facial muscles of expression (which we use to show our feelings)

10

Cranial Vault

Forms the superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the skull as well as the forehead

11

Cranial Base

Forms the skull's inferior aspect

12

Frontal Bone

Shell-shaped bone that fors the anterior cranium

13

Supraorbital Margins

Thickened superior margins of teh orbits that lie under the eyebrows

14

Anterior Cranial Fossa

Supports the frontal lobe of the brain

15

Supraorbital Foramen

Allows the supraorbital artery and nerve to pass to the forehead

16

Glabella

Smooth portion of the frontal bone

17

Frontal sinuses

sinuses in the area lateral to the glabella

18

Parietal Bones

Curved, rectangular bones that form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull

19

Coronal Suture

Suture where the prietal bones meet the frontal bone anteriorly

20

Sagittal Suture

Suture where the parietal bones meet superiorly at the cranial midline

21

Lambdoid Suture

Suture where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly

22

Squamous Suture

Suture where a parietal and temporal bone meet on the lateral aspect of the skull

23

Occipital Bone

Forms most of the skull's posterior wall and base

24

Posterior Cranial Fossa

Formed by the occipital bone and supports the cerebellum of the brain

25

Foramen Magnum

Hole through which the inferior part of the brain connects with the spinal cord

26

Occipital Condyles

Atriculate with the first vertebra of the spinal column to permit a nodding motion of the head

27

Hypoglossal Canal

Medially and superiorly to each occipital condyle, canal through which a cranial nerve passes

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External Occipital Protuberance

Protrusion just superior to the foramen magnum

29

Temporal Bones

Best viewed on teh lateral skull surface; lie inferior to the parietal bones and meet them at the squamous suture

30

Squamous Part

Part of the temporal bone that ends at the squamous suture

31

Zygomatic Process

Barlike process that meets the zygomatic bone of the face anteriorly

32

Sphenoid Bone

Spans the width of the middle cranial fossa, considered the keystone of the cranium because it forms a central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones

33

Ethmoid Bone

Lies between the sphenoid and nasal bones of teh face; most deeply situated bone of teh skull, forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits

34

Sutural Bones

Tiny, irregularly shaped bones or bone clusters that occur within sutures, most often in the lambdoid suture

35

Mandible

Lower jawbone

36

Mandibular Symphysis

Indicates where the two mandibular bones fused during infancy

37

Maxillary Bones

Maxillae; fused medially; form the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton

38

Zygomatic Bones

Cheekbones; form the prominence of the cheeks and part of the inferolateral margins of the orbits

39

Nasal Bones

Thin, basically ectangular bones that are fused medially and form the bridge of the nose

40

Lacrimal Bones

Delicate, fingernail-shaped bones that contribute to the medial walls of each orbit

41

Palatine Bones

L-shaped bones that ar fashioned from two bony plates and have three important articular processes

42

Vomer

Slender, plow-shaped bone that lies in the nasal cavity and forms part of the nasal septum

43

Inferior Nasal Conchae

Thin, curved boens that project medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavityf

44

Hyoid Bone

Bone that lies in the anterior neck just inferior to the mandible; does not articulate directly with any bone

45

Orbits

Cone-shaped, bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue

46

Nasal Cavity

Constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage

47

Paranasal Sinuses

mucosa-lined, air-filled sinuses that cluster around teh nasal cavity

48

Johnny was vigorously exercising the only joints in the skull that are freely movable. what do you think he was doing?

Eating or speaking

49

What bones are the keystone bones of facial expression?

The maxillae bones

50

The perpendicular plates of the palatine bones and the superior and middle conchae of the ehtmoid bone form a substantial part of the nasal cavity walls. which bone forms the roof of that cavity?

The cribriform plates of the ethmoid bone form the roof of the nasal cavity

51

What bone forms the bulk of the orbit floor and what sense organ is found in teh orbit of a living person?

The maxillae form the bulk of the orbit floor; the eye is housed in the orbit

52

What process leads to the formation of most of the skull bones?

Intramembranous ossification

53

Vertebral Column

consists of 26 irregular bones connected in such a way that a flexible, curved structure results

54

Vertebrae

33 separate bones that form the vertebral column

55

Cervical Vertebrae

Seven vertebrae of the neck

56

Thoracic Vertebrae

12 vertebrae inferior to the cervical vertebrae

57

Lumbar Vertebrae

5 vertebrae inferior to the thoracic vertebrae

58

Sacrum

5 fused vertebrae inferior to the lumbar vertebrae

59

Coccyx

Terminus of the vertebral column

60

Intervertebral Discs

Cushionlike pad of an inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by the anulus fibrosus

61

Vertebral Canal

Houses the spinal cord

62

What are the five major regions of the vertebral column?

The cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions

63

In which two regions is teh vertebral column concave posteriorly?

The cervical and lumbar regions are concave posteriorly

64

Besides teh spinal curvatures, which skeletal elements help to make the vertebral column flexible?

The fibrocartilage discs between the vertebrae

65

What is the normal number of cervical vertebrae? of thoracic vertebrae?

Seven cervical, twelve thoracic

66

How can you distinguish a lumbar vertebra from a thoracic vertebra?

A lumbar vertebra is heavier and its massive body is kidney-shaped. a thoracic vertebral body is generally heart-shaped and its spinous process is long, sharp, and points downward, and its transverse processes have facets for articulating with the ribs

67

Thoracic Cage

Rib cage

68

Sternum

Bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax

69

True (Vertebrosternal) Ribs

the superior seven pairs of ribs that attach directly to the seternum

70

False Ribs

Five pairs of inferior ribs that attach indirectly or not at all to the sternum

71

Vertebral (Floating) Ribs

Eleventh and twelfth pairs of ribs that have no anterior attachments

72

How does a true rib differ from a false rib?

A true rib connects to the sternum by its own costal cartilage. a false rib connects to the sternum via costal cartilages of other ribs or not at all

73

What is the sternal angle and what is its clinical importance?

The sternal angle is a ridge across the front of the sternum where the manubrium joins the sternal body. it acts as a hing allowing the sternum to swing anteriorly when we inhale. Because it is aligned with the second rib, it is a handy cue for finding that rib and then counting the ribs during a physical exam

74

Appendicular Skeleton

Bones of the limbs and their girdles

75

Pectoral Girdle

Shoulder girdle; consists of the clavicle anteriorly and the scapula posteriorly

76

Clavicles

Collarbones

77

Scapulae

Shoulder blades

78

What two bones construct each pectoral girdle?

The clavical and the scapula

79

Where is teh single point of attachment of the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton?

The pectoral girdle attaches to the sternal manubrium of the axial skeleton via the medial end of its clavicle

80

Where is the major shortcoming of the flexibility allowed by the shoulder joint?

A consequence of its flexibility is that it is easily dislocated

81

Humerus

SOle bone of the arm

82

Ulna

The longer of the two forearm bones; main responsibility for forming the elbow joint with the humerus

83

Radius

Shorter of the two forearm bones

84

Carpus

The "true" wrist; proximal part of the had

85

Carpals

Eight small bones that form the carpus