Chapter 6 Study Skills: Key Terms

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1

Skeletal Cartilage

A structure made of some variety of cartilage tissue molded to fit its body location and function

2

Perichondrium

Layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding cartilage in a skeletal cartilage structure

3

What are the functions of the perichondrium?

Act as a girdle to resist outward expansion when cartilage is compressed, contains blood vessels from which nutrients diffuse through the matrix to reach the cartilage cells internally

4

What are the three types of cartilage tissue?

Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage

5

Hyaline Cartilages

Most abundant skeletal cartilages; provide support with flexibility and resilience

6

What shape are chondrocytes in hyaline cartilage?

Spherical

7

What cartilages are included under the category skeletal hyaline cartilages?

Articular, Costal, Respiratory, and Nasal Cartilages

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Articular cartilages

Type of hyaline cartilage that cover the ends of most bones at movable joints

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Costal Cartilages

Type of hyaline cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum (breastbone)

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Respiratory Cartilages

Type of hyaline cartilage which forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces other respiratory passageways

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Nasal Cartilage

Type of hyaline cartilage which support the external nose

12

Elastic Cartilages

Type of cartilage that resembles hyaline cartilage except that they contain more stretchy elastic fibers; can stand up to repeat bending

13

Where are elastic cartilages found in the body?

In the external ear and the epiglottis

14

Fibrocartilages

Type of cartilage that is composed of roughly parallel rows of chondrocytes alternating with thick collagen fibers; highly compressible with great tensile strength; occur in areas that are subjected to both pressure and stretching

15

Where are fibrocartilages found in the body?

Menisci of the knees, discs between vertebrae, pubic symphysis

16

How does cartilage differ from bone in terms of growth?

Bone has a hard matrix, while cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis

17

What are the two types of cartilage growth?

Appositional growth and Interstitial growth

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Appositional Growth

Cartilage growth in which cartilage-forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue

19

Interstitial Growth

Cartilage growth in which the the lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within

20

When does cartilage growth typically end?

During adolescence when the skeleton stops growing

21

Which type of cartilage is most plentiful in the body?

Hyaline cartilage

22

What two body structures contain flexible elastic cartilage?

The external ear and the epiglottis

23

Cartilage grows by interstitial growth. What does this mean?

This means that cartilage grows from within

24

What are the seven important functions of the bones?

Support, Protection, Anchorage, Mineral and Growth Factor Storage, Blood Cell Formation, Triglyceride (Fat) Storage, and Hormone Production

25

What is the functional relationship between skeletal muscles and bones?

Skeletal muscles use bones as levers to cause movement of the body and its parts.

26

What two types of substances are stored in the bone matrix?

Bone matrix stores minerals and growth factors

27

Describe two functions of a bone's marrow cavities.

Bone marrow cavities serve as sites for blood cell formation and fat storage

28

Axial Skeleton

Section of the skeleton that forms the long axis of the body

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What bones are included in the Axial Skeleton?

The bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

30

What are the general functions of the axial skeleton?

Protect, support, or carry other body parts

31

Appendicular Skeleton

Part of the skeleton that consists of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder and hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton

32

What are the functions of limb bones?

Limb bones help us move from place to place (locomotion) and manipulate our environment

33

What are the four shape classifications of bones?

Long, Short, Flat, or Irregular

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Long Bones

Bones that are considerably longer than they are wide; have a shaft plus two ends, which are often expanded; named for their elongated shape, NOT their overall size

35

Which bones are long bones?

All limb bones except the patella (kneecap) and the wrist and ankle bones

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Short Bones

Bones that are roughly cube-shaped

37

Which bones are short bones?

the bones of the wrist and ankle

38

Sesamoid Bones

Short bones that form in a tendon; vary in size and number in different individuals

39

What is an example of a sesamoid bone?

Patella (kneecap)

40

Flat Bones

Bones that are thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved

41

What bones are flat bones?

The sternum, scapulae (shoulder blades), ribs, and most skull bones

42

Irregular Bones

Bones that have complicated shapes that do not fit the long, short, or flat classes

43

What bones are irregular bones?

The bones of the vertebrae and the hip bones

44

What are the components of the axial skeleton?

The components of the axial skeleton are the skull, the vertebral column, and the ribcage

45

Contrast the general function of the axial skeleton to that of the appendicular skeleton.

The major function of the axial skeleton is to establish the long axis of the body and to protect the structures that it encloses. The general function of the appendicular skeleton is to allow us mobility for propulsion and manipulation of our environment

46

What bone class to the ribs and skull bones fall into?

Flat bones

47

Why are bones considered organs?

Because they contain different types of tissues

48

What types of tissues are contained in bones?

Bone tissue, nervous tissue (nerves), cartilage (articular cartilage), dense connective tissue (external surfaces), and epithelial tissues (blood vessels)

49

Compact Bone

Dense external layer on bones that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye

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Spongy Bone

Internal to the compact bone, a honeycomb of small, needle-like or flat pieces

51

Trabeculae

Small, needle-like or flat pieces that compose spongy bone

52

What is the structure of short, irregular, and flat bones?

Thin plates of spongy bone covered by compact bone, which is covered inside adn outside by connective tissue membranes (the periosteum and endosteum, respectively); do not contain a shaft or expanded ends, nor do they contain well-defined marrow cavities

53

What is the structure of typical long bones?

Shaft, bone ends, and membranes

54

Diaphysis

Shaft that forms the long axis of a long bone

55

Medullary Cavity

Marrow cavity that is present in the shaft of long bones; surrounded by a relatively thick collar of compact bone

56

Yellow Marrow Cavity

Medullary cavity in adults that contains fat (yellow marrow)

57

Epiphyses

Bone ends; usually broader than the diaphysis; exterior composed of compact bone and interior composed of spongy bone; joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with a thin layer of articular (hyaline) cartilage to cushion the opposing bone ends during movement and absorbing stress

58

Epiphyseal Line

Separates the diaphysis and the epiphysis of each adult long bone; remnant of the epiphyseal plate

59

Epiphyseal Plate

Disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone

60

Periosteum

Glistening white, double-layered membrane that covers the external surface of the entire bone in long bones except the joint surfaces; outer fibrous layer is dense irregular connective tissue, inner osteogenic layer consists primarily of stem cells that give rise to all bone cells except bone-destroying cells

61

Nutrient Foramen

opening through which nerve fibers and blood vessels pass through the shaft to enter the marrow cavity

62

Perforating Fibers

Tufts of collagen fibers that extend from the fibrous layer of the periosteum into the bone matrix and secure the periosteum to the underlying bones

63

Endosteum

A delicate connective tissue membrane that covers the internal bone surfaces, including the trabeculae of the spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through the compact bone; contains osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells

64

Red Marrow

Hematopoietic tissue that is typically found within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and in the diploe (thin plates of spongy bone) of flat bones

65

Red Marrow Cavities

Trabecular cavities within long bones and flat bones that contain red marrow

66

Bone Markings

Projections, depressions, and openings on the external surfaces of bones that serve as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves.

67

Osteogenic Cells

Mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum; when stimulated, these cells differentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells

68

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells that secrete the bone matrix; actively mitotic

69

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells that occupy spaces (lacunae) that conform to their shape; monitor and maintain the bone matrix

70

Bone Lining Cells

Flat cells found on bone surfaces where bone remodeling is not going on; thought to help maintain the matrix

71

Osteoclasts

Giant multinucleate cells derived from the same hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate into macrophages, located at sites of bone resorption

72

Osteons

Structural unit of compact bone; elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone

73

Lamella

Hollow tubes that compose osteons in compact bone like the growth rings of a tree trunk

74

Lamellar bone

Bone composed of lamellae

75

Central Canal (Haversian Canal)

canal that runs through the core of each osteon and contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers taht serve the osteon's cells

76

Perforating Canal (Volkmann's Canals)

Canals that lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the medullary cavity to the central canals

77

Canaliculi

Hairlike canals that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal

78

Interstitial Lamellae

incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons that either fill teh gaps between forming osteons or are remnants of osteons that have been cut through by bone remodeling

79

Circumferential Lamellae

Located just deep to the periosteum and just superficial to the endosteum, extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis and effectively resist twisting of the long bone

80

Osteoid

Organic part of the matrix

81

Hydroxyapatites

"mineral salts"; inorganic component of bone tissue; tiny, packed, needle-like crystals in and around collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix

82

Are crests, tubercles, and spines bony projections or depressions?

Bony projections

83

How does the structure of compact bone differ from that of spongy bone when viewed with the naked eye?

Compact bone looks fairly solid and homogeneous whereas spongy bone has an open network of bone trabeculae

84

Which membrane lines the internal canals and covers the trabeculae of the bone?

Endosteum

85

Which component of bone - organic or inorganic - makes it hard?

Inorganic

86

Which cell has a ruffled border and acts to break down bone matrix?

Osteoclasts

87

Ossification/Osteogenesis

Process of bone formation

88

Endochondral Bone

Cartilage bone; formed through bone development by replacing hyaline cartilage with bone

89

Membrane Bone

Bone formed from a fibrous membrane

90

Endochondral Ossification

Bone development in which bone is formed by replacing hyaline cartilage

91

Intramembranous Ossification

Bone development in which bone is developed from a fibrous membrane

92

Bones don't begin with bone tissue. What do they begin with?

Bones begin as fibrous membranes or hyaline cartilages

93

When describing endochondral ossification, some say "bone chases cartilage". what does this mean?

The cartilage model grows, then breaks down and is replaced by bone.

94

Where is the primary ossification center located in a long bone? Where is (are) the secondary ossification center(s) located?

Primary ossification center in a long bone is in the center of the shaft. the secondary ossification centers are in the epiphyses (bone ends)

95

As a long bone grows in length, what is happening in the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal plate?

The chondrocytes are enlarging and their lacunae are breaking down and leaving holes in the cartilage matrix.

96

Osteoid Seam

Unmineralized band of gauzy-looking bone matrix that is 10-12 micrometers wide and marks areas of new matrix deposits by osteoblasts

97

Bone Resorption

Bone breakdown

98

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Primary hormonal controls produced by the parathyroid glands to control bone remodeling

99

If osteoclasts in a long bone are more active than osteoblasts, how will bone mass change?

If bone-destroying cells are more active than bone-forming cells, then bone mass will decrease

100

Which stimulus - PTH or mechanical forces acting on the skeleton - is more important in maintaining homeostatic blood calcium levels?

The hormonal stimulus maintains homeostatic blood calcium levels

101

How do bone growth and bone remodeling differ?

Bone growth increases bone mass, as during childhood or when exceptional stress is placed on the bones; bone remodeling follows bone growth to maintain the proper proportions of the bone considering stresses placed upon it

102

Fractures

Breaks in the bones

103

Hematoma

Mass of clotted blood that forms at the site of a bone fracture

104

Fibrocartilaginous Callus

Mass of repair tissue consisting of fibrous tissue and cartilage that forms to splint a broken bone

105

Bony Callus

New bone trabeculae that appear in the fibrocartilaginous callus and convert it to spongy bone

106

How does an open fracture differ from a closed fracture?

In an open fracture, the bone ends are exposed to the external environment. in a closed fracture, the bone ends o not penetrate the external boundary of the skin.

107

Osteomalacia

number of disorders in which the bones are poorly mineralized; generally caused by insufficient calcium in the diet or by a vitamin D deficiency; often called "adult rickets"

108

Rickets

Form of osteomalacia in which bones bend to form a bowed appearance; caused by insufficient calcium in the diet or by a vitamin D deficiency

109

Osteoporosis

Refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption outpaces one deposit so that the bones become fragile to the point where a good sneeze or stepping off a curb can cause them to break; composition of the matrix remains normal but the bone bone mass declines and bones become porous and light

110

Paget's Disease

Bone disorder characterized by excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption; newly formed bone (pagetic bone) has an abnormally high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone and reduced mineralization, and can cause a spotty weakening of bones

111

Which bone disorder is characterized by excessive deposit of weak, poorly mineralized bone?

Paget's disease

112

What are three measures to help maintain healthy bone density?

Sufficient vitamin D, calcium, and weight-bearing exercise

113

What name is given to "adult rickets"?

Osteomalacia