PTA 110 Prac App Sep 29

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1

Anaphylaxis

  • BP – can drop
  • Respiratory rate- trouble breathing
  • Pulse – weak rapid pulse
2

Anaphylaxis (actions)

Call 911, ask if they have epipen, ask if you can use it (thigh), lie on back, loose clothing, cover with blanket, if vomit turn on side, monitor for CPR. No food/drink, Benadryl is not enough. Is a life-threatening allergic reaction.

3

Bleeding

May be life-threatening. Arterial bleed- spurts. Venous bleed--oozes

4

Bleeding (actions)

  • Stop bleeding
  • Prevent for shock
  • Prevent infection
5

Bleeding Internal

  • Pulse- Abnormal
  • Respiratory rate- Difficulty breathing
  • Check skin- Cool/moist skin, bruising or wounds in abdominal
6

Bleeding Internal (actions)

If simple injury: apply cold pack, monitor patient, prepare for CPR, control bleeding, care for shock, loose clothing, turn on side for fluid to drain out of mouth. Call 911 for serious cases.

7

Chest Pain

  • Pulse- irregular
  • Respiratory rate- Short or weak, trouble breathing, irregular breathing
  • BP- (Not helpful bc it can go up/down/ or be normal during heart attack)
8

Chest Pain (actions)

Rule out simple fixes. Make sure it’s not indigestion, exercise side effects. If it lasts more than a few minutes, seek emergency help. Angina – reduced blood flow to the heart muscle: Rx Nitroglycerin

9

Diabetic Emergencies (Insulin shock)

  • Pulse- High/rapid
  • Offer juice/sugar of some sorts- get sugar levels up
10

Diabetic Emergencies (Insulin shock)

(actions)

Ask if they have eaten and taken their meds and when. True emergency. Requires prompt action. Need sugar in any form. Sugar can be life-saving. Sugar to the person in diabetic coma will not cause further harm. If untreated can go into coma, convulsions, fainting (and losing consciousness for more than a minute) call 911.

11

Diabetic Emergencies (diabetic coma)

  • Monitor themselves and take meds asap
12

Fainting

  • Pulse- irregular
  • BP- faint/dizziness
13

Fainting (actions)

Lay person on back, raise legs above heart, loosen clothing. If person doesn’t regain consciousness within one-minute call 911. Blood supply to head momentarily inadequate. Usually brief loss of consciousness. Can have no medical significance or be a serious disorder.

14

Head Trauma

  • Control bleeding if any
  • BP- dizziness/faint/unconsciousness (late sign BP is high)
  • Respiratory rate- Cessation of breathing (late sign is abnormal pattern)
  • Pulse-irregular (late sign pulse is low)
15

Head Trauma (call 911 if)

  1. Severe bleeding: head, face, nose, ears
  2. Severe headache (HA)
  3. Change in consciousness for more than a few sec.
  4. Black & blue discoloration below eyes or behind ears
  5. Loss of balance
  6. Seizures
  7. Unequal pupil size
  8. Confusion
  9. Weakness in arm or leg
  10. Slurred speech
  11. Repeated vomiting
  12. Cessation of breathing
16

Heat Cramps

  • Temp- should be normal (If not look into it)
  • Skin check- cool/moist and sweaty
17

Heat Cramps (actions)

Rest, cool down, drink electrolyte sports drink, gentle stretch and massage of affected muscles. Painful, involuntary muscle spasms. Usually occur during heavy exercise in hot environment. May be intense and prolonged. Inadequate fluid often cause

18

Heat Exhaustion

  • Pulse-rapid
  • BP-low and dizziness/fatigue/faint
  • Temp- low fever
19

Heat Exhaustion (actions)

Cool, lie down, loosen clothing, drink cool fluids, monitor. Often begins suddenly. After excessive exercise, heavy perspiration, inadequate fluid or salt

20

Heat Stroke

  • Pulse-rapid
  • BP- low dizziness/faint
  • Temp- high (over 102F..very bad)
21

Heat Stroke (actions)

Person will most likely have stopped sweating as sweating mechanism of body has failed.

Call 911 if

  1. Fever > 102 deg F
  2. Fainting
  3. Seizures

Confusion

22

Heart Attack

  • Pulse- irregular
  • Respiratory rate- shortness of breath

Chest pain, pressure, tightness in chest, constriction, fullness. Pain may radiate to shoulder, jaw, arm, neck, back—between shoulder blades.

23

Heart Attack (actions)

Call 911, keep calm, and lie down. Start CPR if needed. Many people think they are experiencing heartburn.

24

Seizure

  • BP- unconsciousness
  • Pulse- irregular
  • Respiratory rate- irregular
25

Seizure (actions)

During the seizure lie down from getting injured. Loose clothing. Turn on side if vomit. Don’t try to restrain them. Don’t put anything in their mouth (food/tongue depressor). Stay with them until fully conscious. Call 911 if they don’t regain consciousness within one minute.