Chapter 15

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1

The acquisition of an infectious disease is influenced by factors related to:

Both the microorganism and the host.

2

Which facts can influence exposure and development of an infectious diseases:

The immune status of an individual. (Immunocompromised individuals have a much higher rates microbial disease.)

Overall incidence of an organism in the population.

Pathogenicity or virulence of the agent.

Presence of a succiciently large dose of the agent or organism to produce an infection

Appropriate portal of entry

3

Phagocytosis and complement activation may be initiated within minutes of

invasion by a microorganism .

4

Unless primed by previous contact with the same or a similar antigen, antibody and cell mediated responses

do not become activated for several days

5

Toxoplasmosis is a widespread

disease in humans and animals.

6

Toxoplasmosis is caused by

toxoplasma gonidii, recognized as a tissue coccidian.

7

Two members of the human herpesvirus family are

CMV, EBV

8

Other members of the human herpesvirus family include

herpes simplex, VZV and human herpesvirus-6

9

Facts that influence the exposure to and actual development of infectious disease:

immune status of the individual

overall incidence of an organism in the population

pathogenicity or virulence of the organism

dosage of the organism

portal of entry

10

For an infectious disease to develop in a host, the organism must:

penetrate the skin or mucous membrane barrier

survive the other natural and adaptive defense mechanisms

--------- phagocytosis and complement activation is initiated within minutes of invasion

--------- antibody and cell mediated responses require several days ( unless its a second exposure to the same antigen)

11

Immunity of bacterial diseases

lysozyme and phagocytosis are the major natural defense against bacteria

12

Immunity of parasitic disease

parasites can avoid phagocytosis by migrating away from inflamed area.

They are relatively large have resistant body walls

Immune responses to parasites include: immunoglobulins, complement, antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxity, cellular defenses such as eosinophils and T cells

13

Immunity to fungal disease

Fungal infections are increasing due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and AIDS

14

Types of fungal infections seen:

histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, coccidiomycosis, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis

15

Toxoplasmosis is a

parasitic infection

16

Immunity to viral diseases

Interferon plays a major role in defense against viral infections

17

Herpes virus family includes:

cytomegalovirus CMV, Epstein-barr virus EBV, herpes simplex type 1 and 2, varicella zoster (chicken pox), and human herpesvirus-6

18

laboratory detection of infectious Disease by serelogy

1. detection of IgM specific antibodies (elevation means recent or current infection)

2. detection of IgG specific antibodies (elevation means past exposure)

3. acute and convalescent specimens, (draw an acute sample and one 3 weeks after.

19

a TORCH test

is a set of serological tests for Toxoplasma gondi i ( parasite)

rubella

CMV

herpes 1 and 2